Sun, Tong; Li, MengYao; Saleem, M; Zhang, XinYu; Zhang, QingMing
Fluopyram, as a reasonably good fungicide and nematicide, is widely used to control agricultural pests worldwide. However, its effects on soil microbial communities and plant growth remain controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of three concentrations (0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 mg/kg) of the fluopyram (Lufuda 41.7% a.i., suspension concentrate, SC) on the pepper rhizosphere microorganisms and pepper seedlings growth in a plant growth room. Moreover, we also investigated the dissipation of fluopyram in the soil, pepper roots, and leaves across a time interval of 45 days. The results showed that fluopyram application increased the number of pepper rhizosphere phosphate (P)-solubilizing bacteria, the abundance of nitrogen (N)-fixing nifH genes, and the pepper seedling growth. The results of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis demonstrated that fluopyram did not alter rhizosphere bacterial community structure and diversity. However, fluopyram did increase the relative abundances of 138 bp and 400 bp T-RFs closely representing Bacillus and Rhizobium genera that were known as efficient plant growth promoting bacteria with P-solubilization and N-fixation properties. Corresponding to the increase of plant growth and beneficial microbes, the half-lives of fluopyram in soil and plant tissues also decreased that nevertheless suggested the role of plant-microbe interactions in the faster removal of fluopyram after application. Our results suggest that short-lived and easily degradable pesticides may have less toxicological effects on soil health while their judicious use may reshape plant-microbe interactions in favor of the plant growth.
Rhizobiaceae;Rhizobiales;Alphaproteobacteria;Proteobacteria;Bacteria;prokaryotes;communities;effects;environmental factors;fluopyram;fungicides;genes;growth;health;interactions;leaves;microorganisms;mycorrhizas;nematicides;pesticides;pests;phosphates;plant development;plant tissues;polymorphism;restriction fragment length polymorphism;rhizosphere;roots;safety;seedling growth;seedlings;soil;soil flora;toxicology;Bacteria;Rhizobium