Assessment and control of exposures to polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) in spray polyurethane foam applicators 机翻标题: 暂无翻译,请尝试点击翻译按钮。

来源
International journal of hygiene and environmental health
年/卷/期
2019 / 222 / 5
页码
804-815
ISSN号
1438-4639
作者单位
Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Dept Publ Hlth, Zuckerberg Coll Hlth Sci, Lowell, MA 01854 USA;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Dept Chem, Kennedy Coll Sci, Lowell, MA 01854 USA;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Dept Publ Hlth, Zuckerberg Coll Hlth Sci, Lowell, MA 01854 USA;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Dept Publ Hlth, Zuckerberg Coll Hlth Sci, Lowell, MA 01854 USA;Univ Massachusetts Lowell, Dept Biomed & Nutr Sci, Zuckerberg Coll Hlth Sci, Lowell, MA 01854 USA;
作者
Bello, Anila;Xue, Yalong;Gore, Rebecca;Woskie, Susan;Bello, Dhimiter;
摘要
In this work we characterize personal inhalation and dermal exposures to diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI) and other species in polymeric MDI (pMDI) formulations during spray polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation at 14 sites in New England. We further assess the adequacy of current workplace practices and exposure controls via comparative urinary biomonitoring of the corresponding methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA) pre- and post-shift. MDI and pMDI are potent dermal and respiratory sensitizers and asthmagens, strong irritants of the skin, eyes, and the respiratory tract, and may cause skin burns. This study is the first comprehensive report to-date on the work practices, inhalation and dermal exposures to isocyanates and effectiveness of existing controls during SPF applications.Breathing zone exposures to 4,4' MDI (n = 31; 24 sprayers, 7 helpers) ranged from 0.9 to 123.0 mu g/m3 and had a geometric mean (GM) of 13.8 mu g/m3 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 4.8. Stationary near field area samples (n = 15) were higher than personal exposures: GM, 40.9 (GSD, 3.9) mu g/m3, range 1.4-240.8 mu g/m3. Sixteen percent of personal air samples and 35% of area samples exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety's (NIOSH) full shift recommended exposure limit (REL) of 50 mu g/m3, assuming zero exposure for the unsampled time. 4,4' MDI load on the glove dosimeters had a GM of 11.4 (GSD 2.9) mu g/glove pair/min, suggesting high potential for dermal exposures. Urinary MDA had a GM of 0.7 (GSD, 3.0) mu mol MDA/mol creatinine (range, nd-14.5 mu mol MDA/mol creatinine). Twenty-five % of urine samples exceeded the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) biological monitoring guidance value (BMGV) of 1 mu mol MDA/mol creatinine. We further report on field observations regarding current exposure controls, discuss implications of these findings and opportunities for improving work practices to prevent isocyanate exposures during SPF insulation.
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关键词/主题词
Diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI);Polymeric MDI;Spray polyurethane foam (SPF);Isocyanate asthma;Biological monitoring;Urine;
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