The effectiveness of mussel caging for active microplastics (MPs) biomonitoring was investigated for the first time by comparing abundance and characteristics (shape, size, color and type of polymers) of MPs ingested by caged depurated blue mussels with those ingested by native mussels collected at the same sites and with those found in their surrounding environment (surface water and sediments). Mussels were exposed along a pollution gradient originating from a wastewater treatment plant discharge and near an abandoned coastal landfill. After 6 weeks of deployment, the majority (93%) of clean transplanted mussels had ingested MPs with a mean number of items ranging from 0.61 to 1.67 items/g. The occurrence, abundance and properties of MPs ingested by caged mussels were similar to those found in native mussels. Among the debris items detected in caged and native mussels, fragments were the most predominant type, consistent with the MPs found in their surrounding environment. MPs sizes were very similar whether in the water, sediments and both caged and native mussels, with a dominance of items <150 μm. Although some polymers were under-represented or totally absent in the caged mussels compared to overlying seawater or surrounding sediment, there was a good overlap in polymer types proportion being found between caged mussels and sediments (Morisita's index of similarity = 0.93) or seawater (0.86). Polystyrene dominated all samples in all the different matrices. Our study suggests that blue mussels caging may be a promising tool for MPs biomonitoring making monitoring more reliable with an accurate assessment of the biological effects of MPs over a predetermined exposure period. However, further methodological improvements should be considered to define a uniform protocol for blue mussels caging to allow spatial and temporal microplastics active biomonitoring.