Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small proteins showing broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that have been known to be powerful agents against a variety of pathogens (bacteria, fungi and viruses). In this study, the effects of AMPs from Bacillus subtilis on Epinephelus coioides were examined. E. coioides were fed with diets containing AMPs (0, 100, 200, 400 or 800 mg/kg) for four weeks. Results showed that the levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood glucose (GLU) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the serum of E. coioides changed than those of the control group; compared to the control group, the levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and lysozyme (LZM) levels in E. coioides fed with different dosages AMP diets were also different; in addition, the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1 beta), and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) in the tissues of E. coioides were measured, the three genes in the tissues examined were significantly upregulated. The results demonstrated that diets containing AMPs can enhance the antioxidant capacity and innate immune ability of E. coioides, indicating that AMPs might be a potential alternative to antibiotics in E. coioides.