Calcium Supplementation Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Estrous Cycle Irregularity and Subfertility Associated with Concomitantly Enhanced Thermogenesis of Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning of White Adipose Tissue
Obesity has been demonstrated as a disruptor of female fertility. Our previous study showed the antiobesity effects of calcium on HFD-fed male mice. However, the role of calcium in alleviating reproductive dysfunction of HFD-fed female mice remains unclear. Here, we found that HFD led to estrus cycle irregularity (longer cycle duration and shorter estrus period) and subfertility (longer conception time, lower fertility index, and less implantations) in mice. However, the HFD-induced reproductive abnormality was alleviated by calcium supplementation. Additionally, calcium supplementation enhanced activation/thermogenesis of BAT and browning of WAT in HFD-fed mice. Consequently, the abnormality of energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis induced by HFD were improved by calcium supplementation, with elevated metabolic rates and core temperature. In conclusion, these data showed that calcium supplementation alleviated HFD-induced estrous cycle irregularity and subfertility associated with concomitantly enhanced BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning, suggesting the potential application of calcium in improving obesity-related reproductive disorders.