IMDEA Water Inst, Punto Com 2, Madrid 28805, Spain|Univ Alcala De Henares, Chem Engn Dept, Ctra Madrid Barcelona Km 33,600, Madrid 28871, Spain;IMDEA Water Inst, Punto Com 2, Madrid 28805, Spain;Univ Alcala De Henares, Chem Engn Dept, Ctra Madrid Barcelona Km 33,600, Madrid 28871, Spain;IMDEA Water Inst, Punto Com 2, Madrid 28805, Spain|Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem, Stockholm, Sweden;IMDEA Water Inst, Punto Com 2, Madrid 28805, Spain;
Reducing human impacts on drinking water is one of the main challenges for the water treatment industry. This work provides new results to support the recycling of EoL desalination reverse osmosis (RO) membranes for Membranes Biofilm Reactors (MBfRs). We investigate if the controlled-removal of fouling and polyamide layer may favor the use of these membranes in MBfRs. It also would allow establishing a normalized methodology of membrane recycling, regardless of inherited fouling during its lifespan. For this purpose, we transform by chlorination discarded brackish (BWd) and seawater (SWd) membranes into nanofiltration (BWt-NF and SWt-NF) and ultrafiltration (BWt-UF and SWt-UF) membranes. Our results show that chlorine attacks allow the fouling cleaning while improves the hydrophilicity and maintains roughness only in BWt-NF. Therefore, the bacterial deposition in this membrane is greater than the other tested membranes. Besides, the microcystin (MC) degradation capacity of BWt-NF verifies the compatibility of the chemical modification for the biological activity of MC-degrading bacteria. Finally, our results also provide that polyamide thin-film composite (PA-TFC) membranes, originally manufactured for salt rejection during desalination processes, offer competitive gases diffusion at low pressures. Therefore, we conclude that the membrane recycling may provide alternative low cost and gas permeable membranes for MBfRs, according to circular economy principles. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.