Univ Moratuwa, Dept Chem & Proc Engn, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka;Univ Moratuwa, Dept Chem & Proc Engn, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka;Univ Moratuwa, Dept Mech Engn, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka;Univ Moratuwa, Dept Mech Engn, Moratuwa, Sri Lanka;
Rammuni, M. N.;Ariyadasa, Thilini U.;Nimarshana, P. H. V.;Attalage, R. A.;
Astaxanthin and beta-carotene are important carotenoids used in numerous pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications, owing to their vigorous antioxidant properties. The microalgal strains Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella salina accumulate the highest quantities of astaxanthin and beta-carotene (up to 7% and 13% dry weight respectively) and are therefore considered as sustainable feedstock for the commercial production of carotenoids. Thus, from an economical perspective, it becomes desirable to optimize recovery of carotenoids from microalgal cells. To this end, here, we have summarized the conventional and modern extraction techniques generally used for the recovery of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis and beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Furthermore, we have also discussed the optimum process conditions employed for numerous extraction protocols including solvent extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Overall, our study highlights the sustainability of integrated co-production of biofuels and carotenoids in a biorefinery framework.