Future Studies and Risks Management Council, National Academy of Science, EgyptDivision of Atmospheric Sciences, Desert Research Institute, 2215 Raggio Parkway, Reno, NV 89512, USA
Mounir W. Labib;Alan W. Gertler
Kuwait is one of the major oil producing countries in the world. This industry emits significant amounts of NMHCs, which negatively impact air quality. In addition, motor vehicle emissions are another major source of NMHCs. The high ambient levels of these species can negatively impact human health and the environment. Exposures to air toxics as NMHC can also cause noncancerous health effects, such as neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive and/or immune system damage.NMHCs are measured in Kuwait at 5 out of 15 monitoring sites. They are also monitored by a number of major companies operating in Kuwait. Major species of NMHCs includes propane, benzene, isobutene, n-butane, 1 &2-butyne, isopentane, n-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, cyclopentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, MTBE, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylpentane, 3-methylpentane, n-hexane, methylcyclopentane, 2,4-dimethylpentane, 2,2,3-trimethylbutane, 3,3-dimethylpentane, cyclohexane, 2-methylhexane, 2,3-dimethylpentane, 1,3-dimethylcyclopentane, 3-ethylpentane, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane, n-heptane, toluene, n-octane, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene, n-nonane, n-propylbenzene, m-ethyltoluene, p-ethyltoluene, o-ethyltoluene, n-decane, n-undecane, n-dodecane. The observed concentrations of these species in Kuwait are always higher than standard regulations due to the emissions from local petroleum refineries, industries, and mobile sources.This paper presents the results of air monitoring in Kuwait and the concentrations of NMHCs in different locations in the country. Recommendations for taking action to improve air quality are also presented.