Capsaicin is a major pungent content in green and red peppers which are widely used as spice, and capsaicin may activate different receptors. To determine whether capsaicin has different effects on different types of skeletal muscle, we applied different concentrations (0, 0.01, and 0.02%) of capsaicin in the normal diet and conducted a four-week experiment on Sprague-Dawley rats. The fiber type composition, glucose metabolism enzyme activity, and different signaling molecules' expressions of receptors were detected. Our results suggested that capsaicin reduced the body fat deposition, while promoting the slow muscle-related gene expression and increasing the enzyme activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. However, fatty acid metabolism was significantly increased only in the soleus muscle. The study of intracellular signaling suggested that the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and cannabinoid receptors in the soleus muscle were more sensitive to capsaicin. In conclusion, the distribution of TRPV1 and cannabinoid receptors differs in different types of muscle, and the different roles of capsaicin in different types of muscle may be related to the different degrees of activation of receptors.