New York State Dept Hlth, Wadsworth Ctr, Empire State Plaza,POB 509, Albany, NY 12201 USA;New York State Dept Hlth, Wadsworth Ctr, Empire State Plaza,POB 509, Albany, NY 12201 USA;
Kannan, Kurunthachalam;Xue, Jingchuan;
Despite high production and usage of bisphenols including bisphenol A (BPA) as well as bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and its derivatives (BADGEs), little is known about the occurrence and fate of these substances in wastewater treatment plants(WWTPs) in the U. S. In this study, we investigated the occurrence, removal, mass flows, and fate of eight bisphenol analogues and six BADGEs based on the concentrations measured in influent, primary effluent, final effluent, and sludge from two WWTPs (WWTPA and WWTPB) in the Albany area of New York State, USA. BPA, bisphenol F, bisphenol S, and BADGE center dot 2H(2)O were the predominant compounds found in influents of both WWTPs, at respective geometricmean (GM) concentrations of 90.0, 90.2, 31.2, and 6.48 ng/L in WWTPA, and 53.3, bMLOQ, 27.6, 2.25 ng/L in WWTPB. Incomplete removal of these compounds was observed in both WWTPs with the highest removal rate (52%) was found for BPA after the secondary treatment in WWTPA. The fraction of BPA sorbed to suspended particulate matter (SPM) was 6.83%. Mean daily mass loadings of total bisphenols and BADGEs ranged from 9.2 [ Sigma (BADGEs) in WWTPB] to 226 mg/d/1000 inhabitants [ Sigma (BPs) in WWTPA]. The environmental emission rates of total bisphenols and BADGEs through effluent discharges from WWTPs ranged from 13.7 [ Sigma (BADGEs) in WWTPB] to 246 mg/d/1000 inhabitants [ Sigma (BPs) in WWTPA]. Overall, bisphenols and BADGEs were not removed completely by activated sludge treatment. Furthermore, formation of bisphenols from the degradation of microplastics or other precursors such as alkylated bisphenols, in WWTPs is suggested. (C) 2018 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.