Totally found 2674 items.

  • [期刊] Cellulose before CELL: Historical themes
    In 2020 the Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division (CELL) of the American Chemical (ACS) society celebrates its 100th anniversary. The following paper is based on a chapter from the book commissioned by the Division (Patterson, 2021). CELL is one of the most successful and dynamic Divisions in the ACS. It has evolved throughout its history to remain relevant and productive. One of its strengths is its diversity, while staying true to its founding vision. This perspective was present at its founding, and the following paper surveys the world of cellulose and renewable materials from the dawn of history to 1920. CELL has both industrial and scientific roots and has always welcomed the full range of participants from these communities. Rather than operating as separate tribes, the two groups have fostered innovations in each other. Many aspects of cellulose science and technology are discussed from antiquity to the early 20th century.
  • [期刊] A promising energetic biopolymer based on azide-functionalized microcrystalline cellulose: Synthesis and characterization
    In the current investigation, azidodeoxy-microcrystalline cellulose nitrate (AMCCN) as a novel promising nitrogen-rich energetic biopolymer was synthesized, and its features were compared to those of azidodeoxy-pristine cellulose nitrate (APCN), conventional cellulose nitrate (PCN) and microcrystalline cellulose nitrate (MCCN). The produced nitrated samples and their precursors were fully characterized using various analytical techniques. In addition, the heats of combustion and mechanical sensitivities of all nitrated biopolymers were evaluated, and their energetic performances were predicted by EXPLO5 V6.04 software. The obtained results provide evidence for the effectiveness of the applied chemical functionalization approach to synthesize the relatively insensitive AMCCN and APCN with nitrogen content of 22.75 % and 22.50 %, density of 1.718 g/cm(3) and 1.706 g/cm(3), and detonation velocity of 7707 m/s and 7533 m/s, respectively, which are higher than those of PCN. This work opens avenues to design promising energetic biopolymers based on renewable microcrystalline cellulose for potential application in advanced high performance solid propellants and explosives.
  • [期刊] Relaxation and diffusion of water protons in BDDE cross-linked hyaluronic acid hydrogels investigated by NMR spectroscopy-Comparison with physicochemical properties
    Cross-linked hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels are used in many biomedical applications but their characterization in order to distinguish between physicochemical properties is challenging. Longitudinal (T-1) and transverse (T-2) relaxation times and diffusion coefficient (D) of water protons in diepoxide 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE)-cross-linked HA hydrogels were analyzed by high-field NMR spectroscopy to distinguish between different physicochemical properties. Hydrogels of different degrees of modification and cross-linking, representing a range of gel content, swelling ability, elastic and viscous behavior were studied, as well as solutions of native HA of different molecular weights. T-1, T-2 and D were measured for several concentrations of HA and as a function of temperature. D and T-1 showed a weak concentration dependence, but did not differ between the hydrogels. T-2, dominated by chemical exchange between water protons and exchangeable protons of HA, varied significantly between the different hydrogels and the temperature profiles changed dramatically between different concentrations.
  • [期刊] Degradation of pullulan irradiated in hydro-methanolic blends: Influence of cinnamyl alcohol at low absorbed dose of radiation
    This study reports on the effects of electron beam radiation on pullulan in both the dry state and hydro-methanolic blends containing cinnamyl alcohol (CA). The radiation chemical yields of scission (G(S)) and cross-linking (G(X)) were determined using Saito's formalism applied to the evolution of molecular weight (MW) with increasing absorbed dose of radiation. To satisfy the requirements of the statistical treatment, commercially available pullulan was fractionated to obtain a monomodal MW distribution with a dispersity close to 2. The changes in MW profiles were monitored by SEC with differential refractive index and UV detection. The introduction of small quantities of CA in the pullulan blends led to a significant decrease in G(S) and G(X), protecting pullulan against radiation-induced effects likely via energy and electron transfer. In presence of larger amounts of CA, irradiation at higher dose induced an increase in molecular mass with concomitant grafting of the aromatic additive.
  • [期刊] Comparison of polyvinyl alcohol films reinforced with cellulose nanofibers derived from oil palm by impregnating and casting methods
    Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) derived from oil palm trees were utilized to reinforce polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films by either casting or impregnating. CNFs derived from trunks of the oil palm tree were dispersed well in a PVA film by the casting method. Using the impregnating method, however, a sandwich construction with CNFs and PVA was obtained, which was confirmed using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability, tensile strength, and Young's moduli of the PVA/CNF nanocomposite films were increased by compounding CNFs at different concentrations using both the casting and impregnating methods. However, the impregnated nanocomposite films showed higher thermal melting temperature and higher tensile toughness than those obtained by the casting method. No obvious differences appeared in the X-ray diffraction patterns or thermal decomposition behavior between the impregnated and cast nanocomposite films. In addition, adding CNFs was confirmed to increase the crystallinity of PVA.
  • [期刊] A sodium alginate-based nano-pesticide delivery system for enhanced in vitro photostability and insecticidal efficacy of phloxine B
    To improve in vitro photostability and enhance insecticidal activity, a novel esterase/glutathione (GSH) responsive photoactivated nano-pesticide delivery system was synthesized by conjugation of photoactivated pesticide phloxine B(PB) to sodium alginate (SA) via esterase/GSH sensitive phenolic ester bond followed by ultrasonic dispersion. The system was stable in PBS (pH 7.4) and could protect effectively the conjugated PB from in vitro photodegradation because of aggregation-caused quenching effect, whose maximum photodegradation rate did not exceed 10 % after 270 min illumination. However, upon exposure to esterase-6 or GSH stimulus, high photoactivity was observed due to the destruction of the system and accompanied by PB release. The combined stimulation could trigger more PB release than any single stimulus and thus resulting in a higher photoactivity. Compared with free PB, The system showed a higher phototoxicity on Sf9 insect cells and the in vitro light exposure had little influence on the phototoxicity.
  • [期刊] An acidic heteropolysaccharide from Lycii fructus: Purification, characterization, neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities in vitro
    Regeneration of neurites network constitutes a neurotrophic and therapeutic strategy for Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence is supporting the potential application of natural polysaccharides in prevention or treatment of PD. In this study, an acidic heteropolysaccharide LFP-1 was isolated from Lycii fructus, and purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Structural features of LFP-1 were analyzed with molecular weight (MW) distribution, monosaccharide composition, methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. LFP-1 was a complicated structured polysaccharide with an average MW of 1.78 x 10(4) Da and composed of highly branched arabinogalactans, homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan moieties. LFP-1 promoted neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in vitro in PC12 cell models. Furthermore, LFP-1 had a signifi-cantly protective effect against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridiniumion (MPP+)-induced neurotoxicity in PD model PC12 cells. These observations unambiguously indicated the neurotrophic and neuroprotective activities of LFP-1, which may be developed for prevention or treatment of neurodegeneration in PD.
  • [期刊] A naked-eye detection polyvinyl alcohol/cellulose-based pH sensor for intelligent packaging
    Naked-eye detection pH sensor is becoming a powerful tool in food safety monitoring. In this work, a pH sensor was developed by incorporating cellulose modified with acidochromic dye into polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results indicated that the dye (up to 170.4 mu mol/g) was successfully anchored to cellulose. It was demonstrated that the addition of acidochromic regenerated cellulose (ARC) resulted in enhancement of tensile strength, elongation at break and maximum decomposition temperature by 44 %, 43.6 % and 11 degrees C, respectively. The pH sensor demonstrated that a visible color change from yellow to brick-red and to purple when placed in solutions of pH= 7, 10 and 12. The pH sensor showed excellent resistance to leaching under strong acidic and alkaline conditions. When applied to spoiled shrimp, an evident color change from yellow to brown was observed, suggesting it could serve as an easy-to-use, non-destructive visual indicator system for real-time food monitoring.
  • [期刊] Molecular vibration and Boson peak analysis of glucose polymers and ester via terahertz spectroscopy
    Complex permittivity spectra were obtained herein by performing broadband terahertz (THz) spectroscopy on cellulose, paramylon, and paramylon ester. Absorption peaks observed for cellulose and paramylon at approximately 3 THz are attributed to hydrogen bonds. In addition, a broad absorption peak around 2 THz was observed for all the polymers, demonstrating a general feature of polymer glasses derived from weak interatomic van der Waals forces. The boson peak was observed for cellulose and paramylon ester. The boson peak frequency for cellulose nearly equaled that for glassy glucose-a unit structure of the cellulose polymer. Additionally, the insensitivity of cellulose to the polymerization degree was consistent with recent results obtained via molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the boson peak frequency of paramylon ester was markedly smaller than that of cellulose. These results demonstrate the importance of hydrogen bonds as determinants of the boson peak frequency.
  • [期刊] Development of alginate esters as novel multifunctional excipients for direct compression
    Methyl ester derivatives of alginic acid have been evaluated as potential multifunctional excipients for pharmaceutical direct compression. The use of alginic acid as an excipient in tablet formulation is limited because of certain drawbacks such as low tablet hardness and poor compressibility. The objective of this work is to improve these properties through esterification of alginic acid, chemical modification commonly used for enhancing the functionality of tableting excipients. It has been observed that the degree of methylation (DM) has a profitable impact in the physico-chemical and mechanical properties of the obtained materials. In general, an increase in the degree of methylation yielded tablets with higher tensile strength and better compressibility. Furthermore, modified alginates exhibited extended disintegration times compared to native alginic acid due to the introduced hydrophobicity. Finally, the functional versatility of the modified alginates as disintegrating and filling/binding agents was tested by formulating them with microcrystalline cellulose and lactose.