Totally found 312 items.

  • [期刊] Female Preference and Adverse Developmental Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides on Ecologically Relevant Traits in Japanese Quails
    Controversial glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) are the most frequently used herbicides globally. An increasing number of studies have identified GBH residues in soil, water, and even human food that may expose nontarget organisms including wildlife, livestock, and humans to health risks. After a heated debate, the European Union allowed the use of GBHs to continue until 2022, after which their risks will be re-evaluated. Thus, decision makers urgently need scientific evidence on GBH residues and their possible effects on ecosystems. An important, yet neglected, aspect is to assess whether animals show preference or avoidance for GBH-contaminated food, as it can influence the likelihood of adverse health effects in wildlife. Here, using Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) as our model, we show that females preferred GBH-contaminated food compared to control food. In females, exposure to GBHs caused delayed plumage development, and GBH residues were present in eggs, muscles, and liver. These results indicate that female preference is not adaptive, potentially exposing nontarget animals to greater risk of adverse effects of GBHs in natural and agricultural environments. Our results on tissue residues suggest that further studies are needed to understand the risks of such residues in the food chain.
  • [期刊] Identification of novel brominated compounds in flame retarded plastics containing TBBPA by combining isotope pattern and mass defect cluster analysis
    The study of not only main flame retardants but also of related degradation products or impurities has gained attention in the last years and is relevant to assess the safety of our consumer products and the emission of potential contaminants into the environment. In this study, we show that plastics casings of electric/electronic devices containing TBBPA contain also a complex mixture of related brominated chemicals. These compounds were most probably coming from impurities, byproducts, or degradation products of TBBPA and TBBPA derivatives. A total of 14 brominated compounds were identified based on accurate mass measurements (formulas and tentative structures proposed). The formulas (or number of bromine elements) for 19 other brominated compounds of minor intensity are also provided. A new script for the recognition of halogenated compounds based on combining a simplified isotope pattern and mass defect cluster analysis was developed in R for the screening. The identified compounds could be relevant from an environmental and industrial point of view. (Graph Presented).
  • [期刊] Stereoselective degradation of estradiol and trenbolone isomers in alluvial sediment
    Stereoisomers of estradiol (E2) or trenbolone (TB) can occur together in the environment receiving human or livestock wastes. However, the effect of their co-occurrence on persistence has not been well elucidated. A sandy and a silt loam sediment were used to establish microcosms with α- and β-isomers of E2 or TB spiked individually and together. Sediments were sampled periodically and analyzed for E2 and TB isomers and their transformation products using derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that stereoselective degradation was significant for E2 in both sediments and TB in the sandy sediment with β-isomers decaying more rapidly than α-isomers. In the sandy sediment containing limited natural organic carbon and nutrients, co-occurrence of both isomers of either E2 or TB decreased the dissipation rates. In the silt loam sediment with abundant organic matter and nutrients, the decay rates of both isomers were not changed in the presence of the other isomer. Estrone (E1) and trendione (TD) were detected as primary metabolites of E2 and TB isomers, respectively. The formation and decay profiles of E1 were similar in both sediments with 92-100% of E2 transformed to E1. The TD profiles were different across sediments with ∼100% of TB transformed to TD except in the sandy sediment where 51-60% of 17α-TB was converted to TD. These results indicate that the transformation processes of steroid hormone are stereoselective in sediment and cooccurrence of stereoisomers can prolong steroid persistence and thus pose greater environmental risk. (Graph Presented).
  • [期刊] Greening Industrial Production through Waste Recovery: "comprehensive Utilization of Resources" in China
    Using nonhazardous wastes as inputs to production creates environmental benefits by avoiding disposal impacts, mitigating manufacturing impacts, and conserving virgin resources. China has incentivized reuse since the 1980s through the "Comprehensive Utilization of Resources (CUR)" policy. To test whether and to what extent environmental benefits are generated, 862 instances in Jiangsu, China are analyzed, representing eight industrial sectors and 25 products that qualified for tax relief through CUR. Benefits are determined by comparing life cycle inventories for the same product from baseline and CUR-certified production, adjusted for any difference in the use phase. More than 50 million tonnes of solid wastes were reused, equivalent to 51% of the provincial industrial total. Benefits included reduction of 161 petajoules of energy, 23 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, 75 000 tonnes of SO2 equivalent, 33 000 tonnes of NOX, and 28 000 tonnes of PM10 equivalent, which were 2.5%-7.3% of the provincial industrial consumption and emissions. The benefits vary substantially across industries, among products within the same industry, and when comparing alternative reuse processes for the same waste. This first assessment of CUR results shows that CUR has established a firm foundation for a circular economy, but also suggest additional opportunities to refine incentives under CUR to increase environmental gain.
  • [期刊] Mercury Redox Chemistry in Waters of the Eastern Asian Seas: From Polluted Coast to Clean Open Ocean
    We performed incubation experiments using seawaters from representative marine environments of the eastern Asian seas to determine the mercury (Hg) available for photoreduction (Hgr(II)), to investigate the Hg redox reaction kinetics, and to explore the effect of environmental factors and water chemistry on the Hg redox chemistry. Results show that Hgr(II) accounted for a considerable fraction of total Hg (THg) (%Hgr(II)/THg: 24.90 ± 10.55%, n = 27) and positively correlated with THg. Filtration decreased the Hgr(II) pool of waters with high suspended particulate matter (SPM). The positive linear relationships were found between pseudo-first order rate constants of gross Hg(II) photoreduction (kr) and gross Hg(0) photo-oxidation (ko) with photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Under the condition of PAR of 1 m mol m-2 s-1, the kr were significantly (p <0.05) lower than ko (kr/ko: 0.86 ± 0.22). The Hg(0) dark oxidation were significantly higher than the Hg(II) dark reduction. The Hg(II) dark reduction was positively correlated to THg, and the anaerobic condition favored the Hg(II) dark reduction. Filtration significantly influenced the Hg photoredox chemistry of waters with high SPM. UVB radiation was important for both Hg(II) photoreduction and Hg(0) photo-oxidation, and the role of other wavebands in photoinduced transformations of Hg varied with the water chemistry.
  • [期刊] Comparative Evaluation of Statistical and Mechanistic Models of Escherichia coli at Beaches in Southern Lake Michigan
    Statistical and mechanistic models are popular tools for predicting the levels of indicator bacteria at recreational beaches. Researchers tend to use one class of model or the other, and it is difficult to generalize statements about their relative performance due to differences in how the models are developed, tested, and used. We describe a cooperative modeling approach for freshwater beaches impacted by point sources in which insights derived from mechanistic modeling were used to further improve the statistical models and vice versa. The statistical models provided a basis for assessing the mechanistic models which were further improved using probability distributions to generate high-resolution time series data at the source, long-term "tracer" transport modeling based on observed electrical conductivity, better assimilation of meteorological data, and the use of unstructured-grids to better resolve nearshore features. This approach resulted in improved models of comparable performance for both classes including a parsimonious statistical model suitable for real-time predictions based on an easily measurable environmental variable (turbidity). The modeling approach outlined here can be used at other sites impacted by point sources and has the potential to improve water quality predictions resulting in more accurate estimates of beach closures.
  • [期刊] Urinary Antibiotics of Pregnant Women in Eastern China and Cumulative Health Risk Assessment
    (Graph Presented) Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few biomonitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still a lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urine using the isotope dilution ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The hazard index (HI) was calculated on the basis of estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. A total of 16 antibiotics were found in urine, with detection frequencies between 0.2 and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urine, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urine. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine, with detection frequencies between 10 and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1 μg/kg/day, and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value of more than 1. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.
  • [期刊] Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions - A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves
    Subject reactivity - when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed - has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more. (Figure Presented).
  • [期刊] How Many Environmental Impact Indicators Are Needed in the Evaluation of Product Life Cycles?
    Numerous indicators are currently available for environmental impact assessments, especially in the field of Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). Because decision-making on the basis of hundreds of indicators simultaneously is unfeasible, a nonredundant key set of indicators representative of the overall environmental impact is needed. We aimed to find such a nonredundant set of indicators based on their mutual correlations. We have used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in combination with an optimization algorithm to find an optimal set of indicators out of 135 impact indicators calculated for 976 products from the ecoinvent database. The first four principal components covered 92% of the variance in product rankings, showing the potential for indicator reduction. The same amount of variance (92%) could be covered by a minimal set of six indicators, related to climate change, ozone depletion, the combined effects of acidification and eutrophication, terrestrial ecotoxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and land use. In comparison, four commonly used resource footprints (energy, water, land, materials) together accounted for 84% of the variance in product rankings. We conclude that the plethora of environmental indicators can be reduced to a small key set, representing the major part of the variation in environmental impacts between product life cycles. (Figure Presented).
  • [期刊] A Techno-Economic Assessment of Hybrid Cooling Systems for Coal- and Natural-Gas-Fired Power Plants with and without Carbon Capture and Storage
    Advanced cooling systems can be deployed to enhance the resilience of thermoelectric power generation systems. This study developed and applied a new power plant modeling option for a hybrid cooling system at coal- or natural-gas-fired power plants with and without amine-based carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. The results of the plant-level analyses show that the performance and cost of hybrid cooling systems are affected by a range of environmental, technical, and economic parameters. In general, when hot periods last the entire summer, the wet unit of a hybrid cooling system needs to share about 30% of the total plant cooling load in order to minimize the overall system cost. CCS deployment can lead to a significant increase in the water use of hybrid cooling systems, depending on the level of CO2 capture. Compared to wet cooling systems, widespread applications of hybrid cooling systems can substantially reduce water use in the electric power sector with only a moderate increase in the plant-level cost of electricity generation. (Figure Presented).
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