期刊导航

Totally found 1831 items.

  • [期刊] Organochlorine pesticides (HCH and DDT) in blubber of spotted seals (Phoca largha) from the western Sea of Japan
    In 2014–2019, a total of 31 blubber samples were collected from spotted seals (Phoca largha) in the western Sea of Japan. The samples were analyzed by gas chromatography to determine level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). The concentration of hexachlorocyclohexane and its isomers (∑HCH) ranged from 389 to 50,070 ng/g lipid weght; the concentration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (∑DDT), ranged from 62,720 to 1,110,930 ng/g lipid wt. Transfer of HCH and DDT from mother to pup during pregnancy and lactation was documented. The OCP concentration in blubber of spotted seals from the western Sea of Japan is one to two orders of magnitude higher than in spotted seals inhabiting waters off the Japan coast. Organochlorines detected in the western Sea of Japan likely come from some countries of Southeast Asia still using OCPs in the agriculture sector.
  • [期刊] Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in fresh fish carcasses from selected estuaries in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, and the associated health risk assessment
    In this study, gills and muscles tissue samples from 30 specimens of P. commersonnii and 22 specimens of M. cephalus obtained from Swartkops and Sundays River Estuaries respectively were analysed for OCPs using GC-mu ECD, and their risk assessments were performed using the standard protocol described by the US EPA. These species were targeted due to their relative abundance in their respective estuaries. Our findings indicate that from all the fish samples analysed only two samples of P. commersonnii did not contain the target analytes. The risk assessment showed that the hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer risk for all OCPs in muscles of both fish species were less than unity. Thus, this indicates that the daily exposure to the targeted OCPs based on the consumption of these fish species do not have a lifetime cancer risk. The HR values for non-cancer risk were all less than 1.
  • [期刊] Toxicity of oil spill response agents and crude oils to five aquatic test species
    The majority of aquatic toxicity data for petroleum products has been limited to a few intensively studied crude oils and Corexit chemical dispersants, and acute toxicity testing in two standard estuarine test species: mysids (Americamysis bahia) and inland silversides (Menidia berylhna). This study compared the toxicity of two chemical dispersants commonly stock piled for spill response (Corexit EC9500A (R), Finasol (R) OSR 52), three less studied agents (Accell Clean (R) DWD dispersant; CytoSol (R) surface washing agent; Gelco200 (R) solidifier), and three crude oils differing in hydrocarbon composition (Dorado, Endicott, Alaska North Slope). Consistent with listings on the U.S. National Contingency Plan Product Schedule, general rank order toxicity was greatest for dispersants and lowest for the solidifier. The results indicate that freshwater species can have similar sensitivity as the conventionally tested mysids and silversides, and that the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) appears to be a reasonable addition to increase taxa diversity in standardized oil agent testing.
  • [期刊] Biodegradation of weathered crude oil in seawater with frazil ice
    As ice extent in the Arctic is declining, oil and gas activities will increase, with higher risk of oil spills to the marine environment. To determine biotransformation of dispersed weathered oil in newly formed ice, oil dispersions (2-3 ppm) were incubated in a mixture of natural seawater and frazil ice for 125 days at -2 degrees C. Dispersed oil in seawater without frazil ice were included in the experimental setup. Presence or absence of frazil ice was a strong driver for microbial community structures and affected the rate of oil degradation. n-alkanes were degraded faster in the presence of frazil ice, the opposite was the case for naphthalenes and 2-3 ring PAHs. No degradation of 4-6 ring PAHs was observed in any of the treatments. The total petroleum oil was not degraded to any significant degree, suggesting that oil will freeze into the ice matrix and persist throughout the icy season.
  • [期刊] Measuring the fate of different diluted bitumen products in coastal surface waters
    Diluted bitumens are produced by adding lower viscosity diluent to highly viscous bitumen to enable it to flow through pipelines and thus may behave differently than conventional oils when spilled into coastal seawater. Simulated surface spills using three different diluted bitumen products were carried out in May, July and November and water column hydrocarbons were monitored over a 14 day period. Volatile and total petroleum hydrocarbons varied in the water column depending on season and type of diluent. In summer, products diluted with synthetic crude or a mixture of condensate and crude released droplets into the water column. Diluted bitumen did not sink to the bottom of the enclosures with surface slicks showing a range of weathering after 14 d. With most of the diluted bitumen product remaining on the surface for 14 d, a rapid conventional clean up response may be effective in low energy, coastal waters.
  • [期刊] Dynamic ecological risk modelling of hydrocarbon release scenarios in Arctic waters
    The Arctic is an ecologically diverse area that is increasingly vulnerable to damages from oil spills associated with commercial vessels traversing newly open shipping lanes. The significance of such accidents on Arctic marine habitats and the potential for recovery can be examined using ecological risk assessment (ERA) coupled with a dynamic object-oriented Bayesian network (DOOBN). A DOOBN approach is useful to represent the probabilistic relationships inherent in the interactions between key events associated with an oil spill, including oil dispersion from the source, ice-oil slick interactions, seawater-oil slick formation, sedimentation, and exposures to different aquatic life. From such analysis, a probabilistic cost analysis can be performed to examine the theoretical cost of habitat services lost and restored. The application of an ERA-DOOBN model to assess oil spills in the Arctic is demonstrated using a case study. The utility of the model output for determining habitat restoration costs and developing policy guidelines for ecological response measures in the Arctic is also discussed.
  • [期刊] Harnessing a decade of data to inform future decisions: Insights into the ongoing hydrocarbon release at Taylor Energy's Mississippi Canyon Block 20 (MC20) site
    The release of oil and gas at Mississippi Canyon Block 20 into the Gulf of Mexico has vexed response officials since 2004 when a regional seafloor failure toppled the Taylor Energy Company platform. Despite the completion of nine intervention wells, releases continue from the seafloor, mostly captured by a recently installed containment system. Toward informing resolution, this work applies chemical forensic and statistical analyses to surface sheens, sediments, and reservoir oil samples. Our results indicate sheens are chemically heterogeneous, contain remnant synthetic hydrocarbons likely discharged from well interventions prior to 2012, and require mixing of multiple chemically-distinct oil groups to explain observed variability in diagnostic ratios. Given the respite and opportunity afforded by containment we suggest leveraging ongoing collection activities to assess release dynamics, as well as engaging the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, to evaluate potential solutions, associated risks, and to consider policy ramifications.
  • [期刊] Toxicity of oil spill response agents and crude oils to five aquatic test species
    The majority of aquatic toxicity data for petroleum products has been limited to a few intensively studied crude oils and Corexit chemical dispersants, and acute toxicity testing in two standard estuarine test species: mysids (Americamysis bahia) and inland silversides (Menidia berylhna). This study compared the toxicity of two chemical dispersants commonly stock piled for spill response (Corexit EC9500A (R), Finasol (R) OSR 52), three less studied agents (Accell Clean (R) DWD dispersant; CytoSol (R) surface washing agent; Gelco200 (R) solidifier), and three crude oils differing in hydrocarbon composition (Dorado, Endicott, Alaska North Slope). Consistent with listings on the U.S. National Contingency Plan Product Schedule, general rank order toxicity was greatest for dispersants and lowest for the solidifier. The results indicate that freshwater species can have similar sensitivity as the conventionally tested mysids and silversides, and that the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) appears to be a reasonable addition to increase taxa diversity in standardized oil agent testing.
  • [期刊] Measuring the fate of different diluted bitumen products in coastal surface waters
    Diluted bitumens are produced by adding lower viscosity diluent to highly viscous bitumen to enable it to flow through pipelines and thus may behave differently than conventional oils when spilled into coastal seawater. Simulated surface spills using three different diluted bitumen products were carried out in May, July and November and water column hydrocarbons were monitored over a 14 day period. Volatile and total petroleum hydrocarbons varied in the water column depending on season and type of diluent. In summer, products diluted with synthetic crude or a mixture of condensate and crude released droplets into the water column. Diluted bitumen did not sink to the bottom of the enclosures with surface slicks showing a range of weathering after 14 d. With most of the diluted bitumen product remaining on the surface for 14 d, a rapid conventional clean up response may be effective in low energy, coastal waters.
  • [期刊] Dynamic ecological risk modelling of hydrocarbon release scenarios in Arctic waters
    The Arctic is an ecologically diverse area that is increasingly vulnerable to damages from oil spills associated with commercial vessels traversing newly open shipping lanes. The significance of such accidents on Arctic marine habitats and the potential for recovery can be examined using ecological risk assessment (ERA) coupled with a dynamic object-oriented Bayesian network (DOOBN). A DOOBN approach is useful to represent the probabilistic relationships inherent in the interactions between key events associated with an oil spill, including oil dispersion from the source, ice-oil slick interactions, seawater-oil slick formation, sedimentation, and exposures to different aquatic life. From such analysis, a probabilistic cost analysis can be performed to examine the theoretical cost of habitat services lost and restored. The application of an ERA-DOOBN model to assess oil spills in the Arctic is demonstrated using a case study. The utility of the model output for determining habitat restoration costs and developing policy guidelines for ecological response measures in the Arctic is also discussed.
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