Totally found 2820 items.

  • [期刊] Continuous Methyl Ester Production Process from Refined Palm Oil Using 3D-Printed Static Mixers
    The objective of this research was to study the methyl ester purity and pressure drop when the reactants flowed through the 3D-printed continuous static mixer reactor. The various types of 3D-printed mixing elements: KSM, LSM, SMX-3, SMX-4, SMX-5, SMV-3, SMV-4, and SMV-5 were inserted into the tube to blend the refined palm oil (RPO) and potassium methoxide (CH_(3)KO) during the transesterification process. Therefore, the comparison of various types and plug flow (PF) reactors in continuous methyl ester production was carried out to assessed the purity of methyl ester with the condition was 23.81 vol.% methanol and 11.8 wt.% KOH at 50°C temperature. The results showed that the pressure drop had increased when a flow rate of water was increased. The pressure drop in the continuous reactor increased to 29.9% of SMV-5, 19.9% of SMV-4, 12.0% of SMV-3, 7.0% of SMX-5, 7.0% of SMX-4, 7.0% of SMX-3, 3.6% of LSM and 0.9% of KSM when compared with the empty tube cases. According to biodiesel production, the purity of methyl ester decreased by 93.63% of SMV-5, 92.49% of SMV-4, 91.63% of SMV-3, 51.68% of SMX-5, 47.47% of LSM, 46.17% of SMX-4, 45.31% of SMX-3, 42.36% of KSM, and 12.28% of PF, respectively, when compared to the highest purities achieved with PF reactor. Thus, a 662% improvement in ester purity was obtained by using the SMV-5 reactor instead of the PF reactor within 360 mm.
  • [期刊] Preparation and Properties of Nano Coir Cellulose Whiskers Enhanced CS/PVA Composite Film
    Nano coir cellulose whiskersare materials abstracted from mesocarp of coconut shell which was modified by using KH570 as a coupling agent and modified nano coir cellulose whiskers need to be dispersed in chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (CS/PVA) mixture solution. Because of regular structure and high crystallinity, nano coir cellulose whiskers could be applied in medical materials.In this paper, the results obtained with solution casting method by characterizing and analyzing structure, thermal properties, crystallization behavior and morphology of nano coir cellulose whiskers enhanced CS/PVA composite filmby FTIR, DSC, TG, XRD and SEM test. Different content of modified nano coir whiskers and CS/PVA composite film were preparedand themechanical properties of the composite film were also conducted. The results show that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the CS/PVA composite film with modified nano coir whiskers are significantly improved, and Elongation break increases at first and then decreases, which indicates nano coir cellulose whiskers are good materials for medical purpose.
  • [期刊] Preparation and Properties of Nano Coir Cellulose Whiskers Enhanced CS/PVA Composite Film
    Nano coir cellulose whiskersare materials abstracted from mesocarp of coconut shell which was modified by using KH570 as a coupling agent and modified nano coir cellulose whiskers need to be dispersed in chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (CS/PVA) mixture solution. Because of regular structure and high crystallinity, nano coir cellulose whiskers could be applied in medical materials.In this paper, the results obtained with solution casting method by characterizing and analyzing structure, thermal properties, crystallization behavior and morphology of nano coir cellulose whiskers enhanced CS/PVA composite filmby FTIR, DSC, TG, XRD and SEM test. Different content of modified nano coir whiskers and CS/PVA composite film were preparedand themechanical properties of the composite film were also conducted. The results show that the tensile strength and Young's modulus of the CS/PVA composite film with modified nano coir whiskers are significantly improved, and Elongation break increases at first and then decreases, which indicates nano coir cellulose whiskers are good materials for medical purpose.
  • [期刊] Utilization of Nano and Micro Particles to Enhance Drilling Mud Rheology
    Nanoparticles have been used to overcome the limitations of drilling oil and gas wellbores under harsh conditions of high pressure and high temperature (HPHT). In the present work, calcium carbonate (CaCO_(3): 5 µm particles), graphene (powder and platelets) and carbon nano sphere nanoparticles were used as rheology enhancer and fluid loss agent for HTHP drilling fluid technology. The results revealed that by adding only 0.1 wt% of nanoparticles to ester-based drilling mud improved the stability for drilling deep and ultra-deep wells up to 230°C. Furthermore, adding graphene powder gave more effective results comparing to graphene platelets and carbon nano sphere. The mud can plug 10 µm of formation size with 8 ml of filtration and 775 mD of permeability using (21/2 × 1/4 ) inch of ceramic disc. The nanoparticle enhanced ester-based drilling fluid also showed superior rheology, fluid loss amount and mud cake thickness. The application of nano ester based drilling fluid is in oil and gas drilling industry.
  • [期刊] A Swelling Study in Different PH and Mechanical Properties of Biodegradable Films Based on Pluronic F-127/ Poly-Vinyl Alcohol
    PluronicF-127/PVA polymeric biomaterials blend films plasticized with glycerin were prepared by solvent molding method. The polymer blend films were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and mechanical measurements. The FTIR spectra of the two polymers and their blends show that there is no chemical interaction between the PVA and the PluronicF-127. FESEM images indicate that blend homogeneous film can easily be prepared. Mechanical and swelling properties of the studied blends indicate that these can be used for medical application such as biodegradable materials and biodegradable drugs carriers and as food packaging materials.
  • [期刊] Physical, and Thermal Properties of Wood Impregnated with a Mixture of Furfuryl Alcohol, Styrene, and Nanoclay
    In this study, raw wood (RW) samples were impregnated with a mixture of furfural alcohol (FA), styrene (ST), and nanoclay of varying concentration of FA and ST. These impregnated wood and RWsamples were then subjected to FTIR, water uptake (WU), and thermal studies. The FT-IR results at 1600-1800 cm~(-1)showed that the ST/FA/clay-WPNCs had different peak numbers with different positions compared with the RW. So, there was an interaction between RW, FA, ST and clay. The WU of ST/FA/clayimpregnated wood is lower than RW. In thermo gravematric result, below 100 °C the impregnated wood samples had less weight lost compared to RW.
  • [期刊] Polymer Based Injection Mould Cavity Inserts: An Influence on Crystallization and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Injection Moulded Parts
    Injection moulding is a major used technology in mass production of high-quality plastic and composite parts. Once the initial costs have been paid the price per produced part is extremely low and part is then created up to million times. On the other hand, the product development process is time-consuming and costly due to preparation time. Therefore, the efficiency and similarity to real production are essential. Injection moulding into polymer injection mould cavity inserts appears to be an appropriate step in the product development process in particular concerning quickly developing additive manufacturing technologies. Though polymers are thermal insulators, therefore, cooling time is longer compared to injection into fully metal moulds. The impact of different cooling conditions is a change in the crystallization of injected material causing different mechanical properties of products. Removable injection mould cavity inserts were made from PET (Polyethylene terephthalate), PEEK (Polyether ether ketone), PSU (Polysulfone) and PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). The main goal was to compare crystallization and thermo‑mechanical properties of injected PP (Polypropylen) parts into polymer cavity inserts to those injected into a steel mould.
  • [期刊] Study of Zeolite Usage in Thermal Degradation Process of Polypropylene Pyrolysis
    Plastics materials have been an integral part in people’s daily life due to their high elasticity, formability and lightweight characteristics which are suitable for many products. However, exponentially growth of plastics waste leads to heavy environmental problems due to the plastics nature which is not easily degradable. One of solution to alleviate environmental problems due to plastics waste is to use pyrolysis method to burn plastics waste and convert them into lighter hydrocarbon which can be used as a source of energy. In this final project, the addition of zeolite catalyst in pyrolysis process of Polypropylene plastic waste has been studied in the terms of energy activation. Isoconversional Friedman and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods were used. The results may suggest that the role of zeolite as catalyst is pronounced only in the early stage of pyrolysis process. Keywords: plastics waste, Polypropylene, Zeolite, Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa.
  • [期刊] Using ProCAST to Study the Effects of SEED Process Parameters on the Radial Temperature Distribution in Semi-Solid Slugs
    The SEED (Swirled Enthalpy Equilibrium Device) process was used to produce semi-solid slurries. One of the factors that controls whether or not a slug can be used to produce high quality castings is the solid fraction distribution within the slug, and the solid fraction distribution is strongly dependent upon the temperature distribution. In this study, a model has been developed using ProCAST to investigate the relationship between process parameters and the temperature distribution within slugs. The parameters examined included the heat transfer coefficient between the crucible and slug, the heat transfer coefficient between the crucible and air, the slug diameter, and the initial melt temperature (pouring temperature). It was found that the most important parameters controlling the temperature distribution within slugs were the crucible size and the heat transfer coefficient between crucible and air. Adjustment of other parameters had little influence on the temperature distribution. Processing parameters will be discussed in order to allow the SEED process to be used for the production of large diameter slugs (>100 mm), and for narrow freezing range (0.3
  • [期刊] Experimental Investigation of Surface Modified Abaca Fibre
    Natural fibres have gained popularity due to their use in fabrication of biodegradable polymer composites which are not only non-polluting but are also light weight and inexpensive. Abaca fibres are known for their remarkable properties for which their polymer composites are used in automotive applications. However, hydrophilicity and compatibility with polymer matrices are the two major drawbacks of natural fibres which restrict their use as reinforcements in polymer composites. Therefore, present study deals with the surface modifications of abaca fibre using potassium permanganate and sodium hydroxide solutions to enhance crystallinity and reduce hydrophilicity of abaca fibres. Further, the surfaces of untreated and treated fibre were investigated with the help of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Surface treatment of abaca fibre led to the removal of unwanted wax, and other amorphous materials which was confirmed through FTIR analysis. Crystallinity index was found to be 57%, 59% and 61% for untreated, NaOH treated and KMnCO_4 treated abaca fibre respectively.
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