This study investigated 60 strains isolated from petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) contaminated soils from urban and semi-urban areas by providing motor oil or diesel oil or n- hexadecane as a source of carbon and energy. Based on the growth response of isolates in PHC (20000ppm) containing medium, 20 strains were identified based on 16S rDNA sequences belonging to gamma-proteobacteria (10 strains), beta-proteobacteria (6 strains), and alpha-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes (1 strain each). To confirm the hydrocarbon degradation, 2, 6-dichlorophenol indophenol (2, 6 DCPIP) assay was used, along with spectrophotometric quantification of motor oil degradation and estimation of emulsification index (E_24) of PHC. Four (D05, M012, DO10 and HD2) strains were studied for plant growth promotion (PGP) features by seed germination assay, Vigour Index (VI) and shoot-root assay. Strain DO5 identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans, showed most promising results amongst the rest of the strains (DO10- Achromobacter sp., HD2- Rhodococcus sp. and M012- Pseudomonas sp.), namely highest degradation of motor oil PHC (94.5%), emulsification index (E_24=52.5%) along with significant enhancement in PGP (VI=520; 54.47% shoot length enhancement and 28.5 % root length enhancement). The study indicates that PHC contaminated soils in urban areas can be a promising source of PHC degrading diverse bacteria that can be applied for dual purpose of soil remediation and plant growth promotion.
Bacillus cereus AK1 is a soil isolate previously known to produce a novel antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptide 'Kannurin'. This study deals with the influence of Kannurin in diesel consumption exhibited by B. cereus AK1. The primary screening indicated the ability of the bacterium to grow on mineral salt medium by consuming the petroleum hydrocarbon (Diesel) as the sole source of carbon. In continuation, a 7-day batch experiment demonstrated that the bacterium is efficient to utilize 53.94% of the diesel present in the medium under controlled culture conditions. The surfactant property of Kannurin was also studied by oil displacement technique and it showed 28.57 % emulsifying capacity which is also reflected in the enhanced petrochemical consumption exhibited by B. cereus AK1. In this study it is proved that under low concentration or in the absence of Kannurin, B. cereus AK1 is virtually unable to consume diesel fuel. Maximum diesel consumption of 18.24 % was observed when the Kannurin production was suppressed during the biodegradation process. This study reports the direct involvement of Kannurin in the process of diesel consumption exhibited by B. cereus AK1.
Pollution created by noise and its effects on human and other living enriched environment are linked here with pocket technology. The study tests to find a suitable app to measure the noise levels continuously and also to be convenient in easy management of measured data which can be easily accessible through the internet. Secondly, the study aims at measuring the noise levels in different environments which come under commercial, residential and silent zones during day and night both. Present study also identifies exceeding noise exposure levels as per CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) standards so that the unwanted sound or noise can be restricted. Assessment is done to find the apparent fluctuations of noise exposure levels in terms of daily personal noise exposure levels and risks involved with human health depending on the time and type of environment are discussed.
In this paper, we propose the utilization of swarm mechanical self-govem structures to complete marine ecological checking missions. In swarm put forth a concentrated effort adequacy structures, every individual unit is passably immediate and functional. The robots depend on upon decentralized control and neighbourhood correspondence, engaging the swarm to scale to a couple of units and to cover extensive areas. We think the utilization of a swarm of land and water capable robots to normal checking assignments. In the basic section of the review, we join swarm control for a temperature watching mission and support our outcomes with a true blue swarm mechanical independence structure. By then, we make possible an exhilaration based evaluation of the robots' carrying out over wide spaces and with massive swarm sizes and exhibit the swarm's soundness to inadequacy. Our outcomes display that swarm put forth a concentrated effort administration structures are suited for characteristic watching attempts by competently covering an outside zone, considering excess in the information gathering arrangement, and persevering individual robot issues.
Cleaning hand is approved to reduce spreading of infections specially in health care premises and food industries. Waterless hand rub sanitizers have become widespread for their quickness, cost effectiveness, delicateness effects. In this laboratory-based study, waterless hand rub sanitizers available in the marketplaces at the time of commencing the study were selected based on the "99.9 bacterial reduction" or "antibacterial" labelling. Objective was to evaluate their efficacy and synchronous killing-time against various 13 American type culture collection ATCC (strains, by the mean of determining the MIC and MBC). Results demonstrated variant antibacterial activities of 8 hand sanitizers out of 13 when tested on agar well diffusion method with zone of inhibition diameter ranges between ll-30mm. MBC assay showed bactericidal effectiveness of 4 hand sanitizers out of 13 with dissimilar time-kill between 10-50 seconds. In conclusion, water-based hand sanitizer (Dettol? foam hand wash) was experimentally the most effective product both on agar well diffusion method and time-kill test.
Water is an essential element for all living organisms on the earth. The surface water is available in the form of rivers, lakes, ponds etc. and ground water in the form of the aquifer system. The rapid urbanization and industrialization has increased the demand for fresh water, however, the same is responsible for pollution of water resources. This paper reviews experimental evidence of the surface and groundwater quality issues in the Godavari river basin. A rigorous survey was done on the available literature to reveal the reasons for the contamination, assessment methods and mathematical tools applied for prediction. This study also intends to find the applicability and feasibility of tools like artificial neural networks (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) for prediction modelling of water quality. The review findings showed that the surface and ground water quality scenario of the Godavari river basin is not good and needs an effective management framework to protect the water quality and water quality prediction tools for successful implementation of the management plan. The tools like ANN and SVM can be effectively used for water quality modelling of Godavari river basin.
Release of untreated waste to the environment has produced tremendous pressure on researchers and scientist related to ground water pollution, soil and water pollution. The present study represent the monitoring of ground water in and around a ferrochrome industry situated in the state of Orissa. During the study 23 samples have been collected during March 2011 and were subjected to analysis for the concentration of chromium. The study revealed that in around 95% of the ground water samples chromium content was higher than the WHO limits. The results have been compiled and represent to show the impact of chromium on ground water sample.
Membrane bioreactor is the single integrated system consisting of both bio treatment and clarification process useful in the efficient waste water treatment. This robust system successfully replaces the activated sludge technique that requires large aeration and sedimentation tanks producing excess sludge. The present paper demonstrates the detailed description of submerged membrane bioreactor used for water purification, the various types of membranes, membrane configurations, parameters that affect the MBR process, nano membranes, membrane fouling, application of MBR, reuse of membranes, and economic feasibility of MBR technology.
The objective of this study is the treatment and energy recovery from household waste, rich in organic matter, by anaerobic digestion, to counteract the harmful effects of pollution and produce a green energy that is biogas. Anaerobic digestion offers multiple benefits to its increasing use. In the case of waste from the landfill, it enables the reduction of odors and the reduction of the volume of waste discharged. During this experiment we took a mass of fermentable waste from the landfill which was finely divided and mixed with water with a dilution rate of 80%. The biogas produced at the end of digestion, has a fairly good yield (50% -60%) and a volume of the order of 400 mL for a residence time of less than 25 days, this is due to the biodegradability of this substrate. This biogas is flammable, these satisfactory and encouraging results, confirms to us, that the energy recovery of organic waste from the dump is a very good alternative of pollution control.
Various economists and environmentalists have proven the fact that there exists a clear bonding between the degree of urbanization and climate change. The present paper intends to examine this linkage between urbanization and urban environmental pollution using secondary data sources. Various components of urban environmental pollution, which are specifically the effects of urbanization, have been identified and analysed in detail. Their effects on human life as well as on the climate are also vividly discussed here. Finally present status and trend of Indian climate has been analysed. All these hint to the need to restructure this unplanned urbanization and make it more environment friendly before it's too late.