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Totally found 6 items.

  • [会议] Esterification of Polioxy-Based Surfactant Utilizing Azeotrope Technique for Chemical Flooding Application
    The decreasing of oil production has become the main factor for applying Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods in the oilfield. Chemical injection using surfactant was one of EOR technologies that had been proved to increase the oil recovery. In this study, surfactant was synthesized using palm oil as hydrophobic group and polyethylene-glycol as hydrophilic group. The use of natural oil as the raw material was preferred used due to its abundant and environmentally friendly. Esterification of nonionic surfactant was performed by utilizing the azeotrope technique (EtOAc-H_2O) between oleic acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400. The reaction was optimized by a various mole equivalent of oleic acid and PEG (1:1,1; 1:2,5; 1;3) in various reaction time. Surfactant product was characterized by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), acid value (AV), and ester value (ES) to determine the optimum condition and conversion rate. The molecular structure of surfactant was confirmed by ~1H and ~(13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (~1H and ~(13)C NMR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS). Then, nonionic surfactant was analyzed by measuring the interfacial tension (IFT) of oil and water. The optimum condition was achieved by reacting oleic acid and PEG at mole equivalent ratio of 1:3,5 hours reaction time, and conversion rate of 93.7% mole. This nonionic surfactant was able to decrease the IFT of oil and water as low as 10~(-3) dyne/cm in brine salinity condition of 18000 ppm and oil 34,39°API.
    关键词: EOR;PEG;TLC
  • [会议] Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Components in Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission using Magnesium Oxide Loaded on Durian Peel Activated Carbon
    Vehicles produced harmful gases such as Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC) and this gas emission continue to increase every year. In 2018, there was an increase of up to 10% from the previous year. This gas is harmful to human and the environment. One way to reduce pollution from vehicle emissions is by adsorption. Adsorption is often used because its large adsorption capacity reaches 95%. Of the several types of adsorbents, the most developed ones are activated carbon because of its low price and high adsorption ability. The use of commercial activated carbon has begun to be replaced with activated carbon made from biomass waste because it is cheaper and environmentally friendly. CO and HC gas molecules can be absorbed properly in activated carbon. To improve the adsorption ability of activated carbon, it is modified with Magnesium oxide (MgO) with impregnation method. With modifications using activated carbon and MgO ratio of 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10, the surface area results are 1149.48 m~2/g, 890.23 m~2/g, and 859.91 m~2/g. CO and HC Adsorption were carried out with inside tube variant of 3 cm, 4 cm, and 5 cm. this inside tube is used to put the adsorbent. The results showed with increasing the length of the inside tube, the CO adsorption yield increased from 78.68 to 99.14% and HC to 64.54 87.73%. So the modification of AC with MgO had a significant effect for pollutant gases adsorption.
    关键词: CO;HC;AC
  • [会议] Economic Analysis of Model Predictive Control on Dimethyl Ether Purification Process
    The dimethyl ether product (DME) can be used as an alternative energy that is more environmentally friendly and sustainable. At the DME purification plant, the mixture of DME, methanol and air in the feed will be separated to obtain a pure DME of 99% concentration. Model predictive control is used to control the processes in the DME purification plant using first order plus dead-time models (FOPDT). This study examines the use of MPC technically by comparing it with the control performance of the proportional-integral (PI) controller and analyzed economically. The result, the eight single MPCs (SMPCs) performances are better than the PI controllers in overcoming the disturbance with the decrease of the integral of absolute error (IAE) by 40 % to 96%. Thus, there is a saving of utility (water) used is 0,015%. Since the utility is water, the economic value is low. This led to a considerable payback period (PBP) of 14.5 years, and net present value (NPV) of USD -846 in the feed flowrate disturbance scenario of 5%, so that the use of SMPC in the DME purification plant is economically unfeasible. However, the use of two multivariable MPCs (MMPCs) instead of the eight SMPCs will decrease the PBP and will increase the NPV, therefore, the use of MMPC can be considered for further research.
    关键词: PBP;NPV;SMPC
  • [会议] Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide and Hydrocarbon Components in Motor Vehicle Exhaust Emission using Magnesium Oxide Loaded on Durian Peel Activated Carbon
    Vehicles produced harmful gases such as Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrocarbon (HC) and this gas emission continue to increase every year. In 2018, there was an increase of up to 10% from the previous year. This gas is harmful to human and the environment. One way to reduce pollution from vehicle emissions is by adsorption. Adsorption is often used because its large adsorption capacity reaches 95%. Of the several types of adsorbents, the most developed ones are activated carbon because of its low price and high adsorption ability. The use of commercial activated carbon has begun to be replaced with activated carbon made from biomass waste because it is cheaper and environmentally friendly. CO and HC gas molecules can be absorbed properly in activated carbon. To improve the adsorption ability of activated carbon, it is modified with Magnesium oxide (MgO) with impregnation method. With modifications using activated carbon and MgO ratio of 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10, the surface area results are 1149.48 m~2/g, 890.23 m~2/g, and 859.91 m~2/g. CO and HC Adsorption were carried out with inside tube variant of 3 cm, 4 cm, and 5 cm. this inside tube is used to put the adsorbent. The results showed with increasing the length of the inside tube, the CO adsorption yield increased from 78.68 to 99.14% and HC to 64.54 87.73%. So the modification of AC with MgO had a significant effect for pollutant gases adsorption.
    关键词: CO;HC;AC
  • [会议] Economic Analysis of Model Predictive Control on Dimethyl Ether Purification Process
    The dimethyl ether product (DME) can be used as an alternative energy that is more environmentally friendly and sustainable. At the DME purification plant, the mixture of DME, methanol and air in the feed will be separated to obtain a pure DME of 99% concentration. Model predictive control is used to control the processes in the DME purification plant using first order plus dead-time models (FOPDT). This study examines the use of MPC technically by comparing it with the control performance of the proportional-integral (PI) controller and analyzed economically. The result, the eight single MPCs (SMPCs) performances are better than the PI controllers in overcoming the disturbance with the decrease of the integral of absolute error (IAE) by 40 % to 96%. Thus, there is a saving of utility (water) used is 0,015%. Since the utility is water, the economic value is low. This led to a considerable payback period (PBP) of 14.5 years, and net present value (NPV) of USD -846 in the feed flowrate disturbance scenario of 5%, so that the use of SMPC in the DME purification plant is economically unfeasible. However, the use of two multivariable MPCs (MMPCs) instead of the eight SMPCs will decrease the PBP and will increase the NPV, therefore, the use of MMPC can be considered for further research.
    关键词: PBP;NPV;SMPC
  • [会议] Esterification of Polioxy-Based Surfactant Utilizing Azeotrope Technique for Chemical Flooding Application
    The decreasing of oil production has become the main factor for applying Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods in the oilfield. Chemical injection using surfactant was one of EOR technologies that had been proved to increase the oil recovery. In this study, surfactant was synthesized using palm oil as hydrophobic group and polyethylene-glycol as hydrophilic group. The use of natural oil as the raw material was preferred used due to its abundant and environmentally friendly. Esterification of nonionic surfactant was performed by utilizing the azeotrope technique (EtOAc-H_2O) between oleic acid and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400. The reaction was optimized by a various mole equivalent of oleic acid and PEG (1:1,1; 1:2,5; 1;3) in various reaction time. Surfactant product was characterized by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), acid value (AV), and ester value (ES) to determine the optimum condition and conversion rate. The molecular structure of surfactant was confirmed by ~1H and ~(13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (~1H and ~(13)C NMR) and Mass Spectroscopy (MS). Then, nonionic surfactant was analyzed by measuring the interfacial tension (IFT) of oil and water. The optimum condition was achieved by reacting oleic acid and PEG at mole equivalent ratio of 1:3,5 hours reaction time, and conversion rate of 93.7% mole. This nonionic surfactant was able to decrease the IFT of oil and water as low as 10~(-3) dyne/cm in brine salinity condition of 18000 ppm and oil 34,39°API.
    关键词: EOR;PEG;TLC
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