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Totally found 30 items.

  • [会议] Synthesis and characterization of ethylene glycol ester from spent bleaching earth oil and ethylene glycol as hydraulic lubricants
    Solid waste of Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) containing a small amount of oil is generated in the processing Crude Palm Oil (CPO) into cooking oil. Recovery of the oil from SBE from extraction process can produce SBEO (spent bleaching oil), a low-grade oil which has dark color, contain significant amount of FFA (free fatty acid) and solidified at ambient temperature. In this research, this SBEO is utilized as biolubricant after treating through 2 step of processes. The first step is the conversion of SBEO into methyl ester by decolorization, FFA reduction, and transesterification processes. The second step is conversion of methyl ester into ethylene glycol ester. Transesterification of the SBE into methyl ester by methanol at ratio 1:6, give yield of 99.74. While second step transesterification of methyl ester into ethylene glycol is conducted by ethylene glycol. Temperature of 170℃ has the best result of yield (93%). Physical characteristic of the ethylene glycol product give density at 40℃ of 0.91 gr/cm~3 and viscosity (at 40℃) of 9,75 cSt, flash point of 252℃, pour point of -7℃. This Physical characteristic meet the standard SNI 7069.9-2016 for hydraulic lubricant.
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  • [会议] Heterodimer identification of binary antioxidant as enhancing agent for biodiesel oxidation stability
    The lack of petroleum reserves is a concern for researchers that encourage the development of plant-based alternative fuels. Supported by extensive palm oil in Indonesia so that palm oil has great potential to be used as raw material for making palm oil biodiesel. One disadvantage of biodiesel is its oxidation instability. Stability is one of the main concerns of fuel. The stability of biodiesel is lower compared to diesel fuel in general. However, the oxidation stability of biodiesel in terms of induction period (IP) can be enhanced by the addition of antioxidant additives. Antioxidants has a function to increase the induction period by donating hydrogen atoms to pro-oxidant molecules in oxidation reactions. Combination of two or more antioxidants to produce high antioxidation activity compared to a single type of antioxidant is called synergism. Combination of two antioxidants produces two interaction schemes; the donation of hydrogen from the more active antioxidants to regenerate other antioxidants, and the formation of heterodimers from the antioxidant molecules and as a result of autoxidation process. In this case, Tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and Butylated Hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used. Synergism is conducted by determining IP of each lone and combined antioxidant with the ratio 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. The outcome shows TBHQ:BHT 3:1 has the best synergism than the others with the induction period value of 24.19 hours. FTIR result shows the appearance of wavenumber between 1150-1050 cm~(-1) representing ether functional group as a result of combination between the two different antioxidants. LCMS shows great result either with the satisfying yield with molar masses found 385 g/mol for the new formed compound. It sums up that the ratio of TBHQ:BHT 3:1 gives positive result. This implies that binary antioxidant has given synergism effect with an accurate ratio, thus it will be economically significant for the use of biodiesel.
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  • [会议] Effect of chain lengths of alcohol as precipitating agent on extraction of pectin from Citrus nobilis peels
    In this study, pectin was extracted from Citrus nobilis peels using hydrochloric acid, followed by precipitation process using three different types of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol). The optimum condition for pectin extraction was obtained at pH 1.5 using 0.5 M HCl, temperature of 95℃ and for 60 minutes. The effect of precipitation solvent on yield and purity of pectin was investigated. The yield of pectin was obtained at 19.8, 18.8, and 12.7% using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol as precipitated agents, respectively. Citrus nobilis pectin obtained has a high level of purity and methoxyl content. The methoxyl content values of Citrus nobilis peels was obtained of 7.21% using methanol as precipitating agent. Based on the above analysis, the use of methanol as precipitating agents in pectin extraction has a very significant effect compared to other alcohols.
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  • [会议] Multivariable model predictive control (4×4) of methanol-water separation in dimethyl ether production
    The use of the Model Predictive Control (MPC) controller in DME production from synthesis gas has shown better results than the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. However, this SISO MPC controller makes the DME production process uneconomical due to the cost of expensive MPC controllers. In this study, a Multivariable Model Predictive Control (MMPC 4×4) controller was designed with four manipulated variables (MV) and four controlled variables (CV). MMPC controllers are proposed to reduce the number of controllers used and overcome inter-variable interactions that affect control performance. The design of the controller includes the identification of inter-variable interactions through first-order plus dead time (FOPDT) empirical modeling and controller adjustments. The four CV's include condenser temperature, output cooler temperature, condenser liquid level, and column liquid level, while the four MV's include condenser duty, cooler duty, distillate product flow rate, and bottom product flow rate. The results show that the interactions between the variables identified include all variables involved, so that a 4×4 matrix containing 16 FOPDT models is obtained. The control parameter values in the form of sampling time (T), prediction horizon (P), and control horizon (M) with optimum control performance are 2, 24, and 10. MMPC control performance is better than MPC, which is shown by IAE decline was 19.92% to 72.86% and ISE reduction was 19.16% to 83.58%.
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  • [会议] Synthesis of PIB-amine from polyisobutylene and diamine with its performance test as deposit control additive in one cylinder gasoline engine
    Gasoline combustion in an engine always produce carbon particle which then agglomerate, precipitate, and degrade the engine performance. In this research PIB amine, a surfactant having PIB as the hydrocarbon nonpolar tail and TEPA as polar head, is prepared and tested as deposit controlling agent (DCA) f or gasoline. This reaction product is a viscous liquid with density 0,8566 g/ml and kinematic viscosity @40℃ of 75,16 cSt, and on its FTIR spectrum shows peak at 3200-3500 cm~(-1) (amine group). Its anti-deposit performance has been tested using single cylinder gasoline engine, at concentration 300 ppm PIB amine can significantly reduce deposit, comparable to that of the commercial PIBA. The 300 ppm PIB Amine gasoline is also pass gum test, with unwash gum value <75mg/100mL and wash gum value <5 mg/100mL.
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  • [会议] Synthesis of sucrose ester surfactant by utilizing molasses and waste cooking oil
    Sucrose esters are amphiphilic compounds which commercially used as surface active material (surfactant). In this study, the synthesis of sucrose esters was carried out by using two low valued material, which are molasses and waste cooking oil as the raw material. Molasses used as the source of carbohydrate chain while waste cooking oil used the source of ester chain. The objective of this study is to find the operating condition with highest product produced and find the characteristic of sugar esters surfactant synthesized from molasses, which a mixture of several type of sugars such as glucose, sucrose, and fructose. An adsorption process using activated carbon adsorbent carried out as pre- treatment process to bleach oil's dark color and reduce the free fatty acid content. The synthesis of sucrose ester carried through two stages of transesterification. The first transesterification was done to convert waste cooking oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by using homogeneous NaOH catalyst. The second transesterification was the reaction between methyl ester and molasses using Na_2CO_3 catalyst and DMSO as solvent to produce sucrose ester. The second transesterification carried out by varying the mole ratio of molasses to esters of 3:1, 5:1, and 8:1. Synthesized sucrose esters are characterized using LC-MS analysis instruments. Highest production of sugar esters occurred on molasses to ester mole ratio of 8:1.
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  • [会议] Biolubricant from spent bleaching earth oil through propylene glycol ester synthesis
    An ester type biolubricant, propylene glycol ester, has been synthesized from spent bleaching earth oil (SBEO). First, SBEO was pretreated to remove coloring materials via adsorption using activated carbon, to reduce FFA (free fatty acid) via esterification using acid catalyst, to separate glycerol via transesterification using methanol, and to produce FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) or biodiesel. The transesterification process of the treated SBEO, using methanol and KOH as base catalyst at molar ratio 1:6 (SBEO:methanol) produced FAME with 99.21% yield. Then, FAME was reacted with propylene glycol to produce propylene glycol ester (biolubricant). The transesterification process of the FAME with propylene glycol produced propylene glycol ester biolubricant with 92% yield. The biolubricant gave flash point 252℃ and pour point -7℃.
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  • [会议] Synthesis of PIB-amine from polyisobutylene and diamine with its performance test as deposit control additive in one cylinder gasoline engine
    Gasoline combustion in an engine always produce carbon particle which then agglomerate, precipitate, and degrade the engine performance. In this research PIB amine, a surfactant having PIB as the hydrocarbon nonpolar tail and TEPA as polar head, is prepared and tested as deposit controlling agent (DCA) f or gasoline. This reaction product is a viscous liquid with density 0,8566 g/ml and kinematic viscosity @40℃ of 75,16 cSt, and on its FTIR spectrum shows peak at 3200-3500 cm~(-1) (amine group). Its anti-deposit performance has been tested using single cylinder gasoline engine, at concentration 300 ppm PIB amine can significantly reduce deposit, comparable to that of the commercial PIBA. The 300 ppm PIB Amine gasoline is also pass gum test, with unwash gum value <75mg/100mL and wash gum value <5 mg/100mL.
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  • [会议] The synergistic effect of pyrogallol based binary antioxidants in the oxidative stability of palm oil biodiesel
    Biodiesel is one of the renewable alternative fuels consists of mono alkyl ester fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. Due to its high availability, palm oil become the main source of Indonesian biodiesel production. Nevertheless, one of the drawbacks in the use of biodiesel is that biodiesel is prone to quality degradation due to its oxidative instability especially on the unsaturated based methyl ester content in the presence of air, heat, metal elements, peroxides, and storage conditions. The oxidation of biodiesel might lead to some problems such as filter plugging, fouling on the injector, deposits development on the combustion engine, and malfunctions in the diesel engine fuel system. Biodiesel oxidation can be prevented by the addition of antioxidants. The application of binary antioxidants has been reported in extending the induction periode and the improvement of biodiesel quality due to its synergistic effect. In this study, pyrogallol is used as the main component in several binary mixtures with other antioxidants. There are three pyrogallol binary antioxidant that have synergistic effect, PY:TBHQ (1:3), PY:TBHQ (1:1), and PY:BHA (1:1), with their induction periode of 26.88 hours, 38.48 hours, and 31.24 hours, respectively. PY:TBHQ (1:1) has the highest induction periode among the other binary antioxidants. For the iodine value and acid number, all of the samples are within the specification of biodiesel (max. 115 g-I_2/100 g) and (max. 0.5 KOH mg/g).
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  • [会议] Synthesis and characterization of polyisobutylene-amine from polyisobutylene and tetraethylenepentamine and its performance as deposit control additive in one cylinder gasoline engine
    Fuel is still a crucial commodity in this world. Fuel can be utilized in various economic activities, such as on vehicle. The utilization of fuel in vehicle often produce deposit and pollution that came from imperfect combustion. One alternate solution to improve fuel combustion efficiency and reduce pollution is by formulating fuel additive that can control deposit in vehicle combustion chamber. Deposit Control Additive (DCA) consists of polar head and hydrocarbon tail as a non-polar end has a similarity of structure with surfactant. One of the results of amination reaction which is Polyisobutylene (PIB) - amine has proven its ability as DCA. The longer the molecular length of PIB, the higher its effect on improving fuel combustion efficiency. In this study, there are 2 type of PIB being used with molecular weight of 950 and 1300 and 2 type of amine, tetraethylenepentamine and diethylenetriamine. The synthesized result is being tested to acquire its physical-chemical properties and also its performance as DCA in one-cylinder gasoline engine with fuel.
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