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  • [资讯] Plant Disease Under The Homeland Security Microscope

    AMARILLO--Sincethe9/11terroristattacks,questionsonplantdiseaseshaveaddedsignificance,saidDr.CharlesRush,plantpathologistwiththeTexasAgriculturalExperimentStationatAmarillo.Plantpests,includingweeds,insectsanddiseases,causeextensiveyieldlossestocropseveryyear."Intentionalorunintentionalintroductionofexoticpestsorpathogenscoulddirectlyincreasetheselosses,"Rushsaid.Protectingthecountry'sagricultureisvitaltofoodsafety,saidRush,whohasjoinedotherland-grantuniversityscientistsinanationalsystemofdiagnosticlaboratorieschargedwithprotectinghomelandagriculture.TheU.S.DepartmentofAgricultureprovidedfundingfortheNationalPlantDiseaseDiagnosticNetworkthroughtheCooperativeStateResearch,EducationandExtensionService.Fiveregionaluniversitycoordinatorshavebeensetup:CornellUniversityforthenortheast,MichiganStateUniversityforthenorthcentral,KansasStateUniversityfortheGreatPlains,UniversityofCaliforniaatDavisforthewest,andtheUniversityofFloridaforthesouthernregion.TheNationalAgriculturalPestInformationSystemoperatedbyPurdueUniversityservesasdatacollectionarchive.TheTexasA&MUniversitySystemAgricultureProgramconnectswiththeNPDNviatheGreatPlainsandSouthernnetworks.Texasistheonlystatewithtworegions.ProductionintheHighPlainsisvastlydifferentfromthattothesouth.Rush'sprogramfitsbestwiththeGreatPlainsDiagnosticNetworkanditscoordinationthroughKSU.Inaddition,RushisanadjunctprofessorwithTexasTechUniversity,whichmarksGPDN'ssouthernboundary.OtherGPDNcooperatorsinclude:ColoradoStateUniversity,MontanaStateUniversity,NorthDakotaStateUniversity,OklahomaStateUniversity,SouthDakotaStateUniversity,TexasTech,UniversityofNebraska,andUniversityofWyoming.Acommonsoftwareplatformallowsrapidprocessingofdiagnosticrequestsandinformationamongtheseunits.Asregionalbio-securityactivitieshaveincreased,Rushandhisassociates,Dr.JeffStein,plantpathologist,andKimMaxson,plantdiseasediagnostician,havebriefedgovernmentcongressionalandstatelegislativeofficials,includingthosefromUSDAPlantHealthandInspectionServicePlantProtectionandQuarantineDivisionandTexasDepartmentofAgriculture.Steinsaidtheintroductionofinvasivespeciesinthiscountryisn'tnew,butwithincreasedinternationalcommerce,therisksarelikelytobecomemorecommon.TworecentarrivalsintheU.S.–citruscankerandplumpox–prompted"zerotolerance"quarantineswheretheaffectedfruittreeshadtobedestroyed."Ifanorchardhaseitherdisease,thesiteisessentiallyguttedandthegrowerisleftwithahugeeconomicloss,"hesaid.TheGreatPlainsproduces95percentofthenation'ssunfloweracres,84percentofthesorghum,73percentofthewheat,55percentofthedrybeans,42percentofthecotton,and35percentofthesugarbeets.Theregionalsogrowsmuchofthecorn,soybeans,potatoes,alfalfaandcanola-rapeseed.Wheatalsotakesalargesliceofthisregionalproductionpie.Karnalbunt,amongotherpests,isanveryunwelcomevisitor.TexaswasoneofonlythreeU.S.stateswithaconfirmedthreatwithinitsboundaries.Fromkarnalbunt'sarrivalin1996untillastyear,thediseasecausedanestimated$350millionlossnationally."We'renotonlyconcernedovernaturaloccurrences,butnowworryaboutagroterrorism,"saidStein.HepointedtoRush'sworkonmanysignificantplantdiseasesincludingsorghumergot,wheatstreakmosaicvirus,andrhizomania,asoil-bornevirusaffectingsugarbeets.Federalandstateagenciesmonitornationalbordersforplantpestintroductions.Still,onoccasion,newoneswillslipthrough.Growersoftenspottheseanomalies,Steinexplained.Professionalsatland-grantuniversitieshandletheidentificationandverification.Anational"firstdetector"networkhasbeenexpanded,Rushsaid.Front-linemonitorsinclude:growers,extensionpersonnel,cropconsultants,pesticideapplicators,commercialchemicalandseedrepresentatives,andothersinvolvedinplantgrowthormanagement,includingMasterGardeners."Theywillaccessaweb-baseddiagnosticsystem,reportunusualpestoccurrencesandexistingcropconditionsorgainotherinformationnotnormallysubmittedthroughothermeans,"Rushsaid.Anadvisorysystemwillprovideinformationconcerningpestalarmsorweatherconditionsthatcouldtriggeroutbreaks.AccordingtoGPDNdirectorDr.JimStackatKSU,theweb-basedPlantDiseaseInformationSystemisdesignedtohelpland-grantpersonnelsubmitplantsamples,digitalimagesandotherdetailsforrow-croppestdiagnosis.Theadvantagesincluderapidevaluationandreportingofpotentialthreats,andshorterresponsetimefordiagnoses.Linkingsatellitelabsacrossthecountrywithregulatoryagencies,includingtheUSDA-APHISandeachstate'sdepartmentofagricultureisunderway,Stacksaid.RecentlytheAmarillolabhosted20diagnosticiansandprogramcoordinatorsfromeachstatewithinthenetworkduringasitevisitandsecurityreviewinAmarillo.SteinandMaxsontrainedthediagnosticiansinnewdiagnostictechniquesslatedforadoptionbyparticipatinglaboratories."ThefacttheseprofessionalsfromacrosstheGreatPlainscameheretobetrainedspeakstothequalityofourlabpersonnelandacknowledgesthetechnicalexpertisefoundhere,"Rushsaid."We'repleasedtohaveDr.Rush'slabsatBushlandandhereconnectedtotheGreatPlainsnetwork,"saidDr.JohnSweeten,ExperimentStationresearchdirectorattheTexasA&MUniversitySystemAgriculturalResearchandExtensionCenterinAmarillo.ThePanhandle-basedlabisprovidingTexasagriculturearegionalresourceforcropsampleprocessing.Expertstheretieplantdiseasediagnosticstoentomologyandweedsciencetoprovideaccurateandrapidassessmentsofcroppests.RowcropdiseasesurveysthroughExtensionalsohelpmonitortheoccurrenceofmanyestablishedandexoticplantdiseasesinthestate,Rushsaid.###TheOfficeofHomelandSecurity,USDA-APHISandTDAareunderwritingthesurveys.FormoreinformationaboutGPDN,andtheTexasHighPlainsPlantPathologyProgram,visittheseonlineresources:http://www.gpdn.organdhttp://thppp.tamu.edu/gpdn/

  • [专利] 莫能菌素钠的制备方法、莫能菌素钠及其产品

    本发明提供了一种莫能菌素钠的制备方法、莫能菌素钠及其产品,涉及制药工程技术领域。该方法将生产莫能菌素的菌体的发酵液依次进行预处理、有机溶剂浸提、浓缩、表面活性剂除杂和干燥,得到莫能菌素钠;预处理包括如下步骤:将NaOH溶液加入生产莫能霉素的菌体的发酵液中,得到原料液,分离得到含莫能菌素钠的固体原料。该莫能菌素钠的制备方法缓解了现有技术制备莫能菌素钠纯度低,工艺繁琐,工艺成本高的技术问题。此外,本发明还提供了莫能菌素钠的制备方法制备得到的莫能菌素钠和包含上述莫能菌素钠的药品或饲料添加剂。

  • [专利] 一种莫能菌素晶体或其钠盐的制备方法

    本发明涉及一种莫能菌素晶体或其钠盐的制备方法,该方法是将莫能菌素发酵液经预处理、脱色析出、有机溶媒溶解、结晶和淋洗后,直接干燥得到莫能菌素晶体或者加碱盐化、喷雾干燥得到莫能菌素钠盐。本发明摒弃了常规的结晶工艺,通过提取、结晶和合成工艺实现了提高莫能菌素收率、降低成本,提高其晶体和成品质量的制备方法,适用于工业化生产。

  • [专利] 以层状磷酸钾钙作为固体润滑添加剂的锂基润滑脂及其制备方法

    本发明公开了一种以层状磷酸钾钙作为固体润滑添加剂的锂基润滑脂及其制备方法。该锂基润滑脂由以下质量份数的组分制成:基础锂基润滑脂74.0‑98.95份,层状磷酸钾钙CaKPO4·H2O1.0‑10.0份,抗氧剂0.05‑5.0份,防锈剂0‑6.0份,极压剂0‑5.0份。制备方法为:将基础锂基润滑脂、层状磷酸钾钙CaKPO4·H2O、抗氧剂、防锈剂和极压剂在室温~200℃下搅拌混合1‑10h,利用三辊研磨机或高压均质机研磨均化0.5‑3h使之均匀,制得锂基润滑脂产品。本发明提供的层状磷酸钾钙CaKPO4·H2O为固体润滑添加剂的润滑脂具有良好的极压承载抗磨减摩能力。

  • [期刊] 高效液相色谱法测定虎杖中大黄素的含量

    虎杖收载于《中国药典》2000年版一部,采用分光光度法测定总蒽醌控制含量。虎杖含蒽醌类衍生物,以游离型为主,有大黄素、大黄素甲醚、大黄酚等成分,本文采用高效液相色谱法测定虎杖药材中大黄素的含量,方法快速、方便、可靠。

  • [专利] 一种提取纯化伞房花序藿香蓟素C的方法

    本发明公开了一种提取纯化伞房花序藿香蓟素C的方法,包括以下步骤:(1)以伞房花序霍香蓟的叶和花为原料,进行干燥、粉碎,采用超临界二氧化碳技术萃取伞房花序霍香蓟的叶和花中的油脂类物质;(2)残渣加丙酮溶液进行超声循环提取;(3)提取液浓缩后上聚酰胺树脂柱,先用水和30%乙醇溶液洗脱,再用75%乙醇溶液洗脱,收集75%乙醇洗脱液;(4)洗脱液浓缩,上硅胶短粗柱,以乙酸乙酯-丙酮混合溶液为洗脱剂,收集洗脱液,浓缩,放置结晶;(5)分出结晶,丙酮-正己烷混合溶剂重结晶,滤出结晶,冷冻干燥即得伞房花序藿香蓟素C。本发明方法操作简单,可实现规模化生产。

  • [期刊] Association between a pro plant‐based dietary score and cancer risk in the prospective N N utri N N et‐santé cohort

    Diverse plant products (e.g. fruits, vegetables, legumes) are associated with decreased cancer risk at several locations while red and processed meat were found to increase cancer risk. A pro plant‐based dietary score reflecting the relative contribution of consumed plant vs animal products was developed, and was associated with lower overall mortality, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, among omnivorous adults. For the first time, we investigated the prospective associations between this pro plant‐based dietary score and cancer risk. This study included 42,544 men and women of the French NutriNet‐Santé prospective cohort (2009‐2016) aged ≥45 years who completed at least three 24‐hr‐dietary records during the first year of follow‐up. The risk of developing cancer was compared across sex‐specific tertiles of pro plant‐based dietary score by multivariable Cox models. In total, 1,591 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during follow‐up, among which 487 breast, 243 prostate, 198 digestive and 68 lung cancers. A higher pro plant‐based dietary score was associated with decreased risks of overall (HR t3vs.t1 =0.85; 95% CI 0.76, 0.97; P trend =0.02), digestive (HR t3vs.t1 =0.68; 95% CI 0.47; 0.99; P trend ?=?0.04) and lung (HR t3vs.t1 =0.47; 95% CI 0.25, 0.90; P trend =0.02) cancer, though no substantial associations were found for breast or prostate cancers. This large cohort study supports a beneficial role of higher intakes of plant‐based products along with lower intakes of animal products, within a balanced omnivorous diet, regarding primary cancer prevention. These results are consistent with mechanistic evidence from experimental studies.

  • [期刊] Circadian nutritional behaviours and cancer risk: New insights from the NutriNet‐santé prospective cohort study: Disclaimers

    Circadian disruption has been classified as probably carcinogenic to humans by the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer. The circadian clock is subject to environmental factors, particularly light exposure and food intake rhythms. However, the association between nutritional circadian behaviours and cancer is not well understood. We investigated the longitudinal associations between number of eating episodes, night‐time fasting duration, time of first and last eating episodes, as well as nutritional quality of last eating episode, respectively, with breast and prostate cancer risks, the two main cancer locations in women and men respectively. This prospective study included 41,389 day‐working adults in the French NutriNet‐Santé cohort (2009–2016) who completed at least three 24 h dietary records during the first 2?years of follow‐up. Multivariable Cox models were computed. 1,732 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during the follow‐up, among which 428 breast and 179 prostate cancers. After adjustment for covariates including sleep duration, late eaters (last eating episode after 9:30 pm) had an increased risk of breast (Hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.48 [1.02–2.17], p ?=?0.03) and prostate (HR?=?2.20 [1.28–3.78], p ?=?0.004) cancers. However, no association was observed between cancer risk and number of eating episodes, night‐time fasting duration, time of first eating episode or macronutrient composition of the last eating episode. This large cohort study suggests that circadian perturbations resulting from late time of last food intake may be involved in carcinogenesis at different locations. Beyond nutritional quality of food intake, nutritional circadian regulation should be further investigated in the context of cancer prevention.

  • [专利] 一种​淀粉​乳液​化​系统

    (CN205616903U) 本​实用​新型​涉及​种​淀粉​乳液​化​系统,其​连接​于​淀粉​乳化​系统​下游,包括​依次​连接​的​加​酶​单元、第​液化​单元​以及​第二​液化​单元,其​中加​酶​单元​用于​调节​淀粉​乳​的​液化​酶​含量​及​PH​值,第​液化​单元​用于​对​淀粉​乳​进行​第​次​液化,第二​液化​单元​用于​对​淀粉​乳​进行​第二次​液化。该​淀粉​乳液​化​系统​采用​二次​液化​工艺​来​实现​淀粉​乳液​化,将​淀粉​乳​依次​通过​第​液化​单元​和​第二​液化​单元​进行​液化,不仅​能使​所​消耗​的​蒸汽​量、液化​酶​量​仅为​次​液化​工艺​的​80%,从而​降低​能耗、降低成本,更​重要的是,通过​二次​液化​工艺,能将​陈​化​粮、烘​干粮​等​些​品质​较差​的​原料​制成​的​淀粉​进行​有效​液化,从而​提高​原料​的​利用率,进步​提高产量​以及​产品​质量。

  • [期刊] Socio-economic indicators are independently associated with intake of animal foods in French adults

    Objective: The specific role of major socio-economic indicators (education, occupation, income) in influencing consumer choice of animal foods (AF) intake could reveal distinct socio-economic facets, thus enabling elucidation of mechanisms leading to social inequalities in health. We investigated the independent association of each indicator with intake of different AF and their effect modification.

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