Ingo GM;Angelini E;De Caro T;Bultrini G;Mezzi A
来源期刊：Surface and Interface Analysis: SIA: An International Journal Devoted to the Development and Application of Techniques for the Analysis of Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films
年/卷/期：2004 / 36 / 8
By means of the combined use of XPS and scanning electron microscopy + energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM + EDS), the microchemical structure of long-term corrosion products grown on Aes Rude, i.e. archaeological unworked lumps of Cu-based materials, has been carried out. In ancient Italy, these materials have been used as currency, as a medium of exchange and as a form of saving, from the sixth to the third centuries BC before the use of the struck metallic coins. The results of the microchemical investigation disclose their apparently unusable nature for any functional applications or possible use, being constituted of highly ferruginous leaded copper, and demonstrate that Aes Rude were a primitive form of currency as suggested by archaeologists. Furthermore, XPS and SEM + EDS results give evidence on the corroded external region of the presence of Cu (II) hydrates mixed with hydrated iron oxide and aluminium-silicon phases coming from the soil that have been incorporated into the patina. This information is useful to identify the material nature of these archaeological artefacts and to select tailored conservation strategies finalized to ensure long life to these relevant ancient materials. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.
With the increased interest in environmental problems, various regulations have been reinforced in regard to exhaust gases. To meet these legal changes the EV-related developments and improvements are actively being promoted in auto-related industries. In this connection, regular research was begun in the latter half of the 1980s toward the practical use of the electric vehicle (EV) in Japan and such efforts have been continued till the present. In particular, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are getting popular among general drivers because the HEVs can utilize conventional infrastructures of energy supply and HEVs can contribute to the energy saving. In addition, a subsidy for purchasing HEVs in available. As such, available models are increasing. Furthermore, in 2002, the EVs incorporating fuel cells were put into actual use and allowed to run on streets. This was a new development in terms of batteries and energy supply because these factors have been a outstanding problem. Meidensha Corporation is has many supply records of the EV-related testing facilities for many years and it possesses many supply records. This paper introduces ultra-high-speed FREC dynamometers and their related equipment units for the testing of the EV motor which are recently getting bigger and faster.
The development of energy- saving desalination systems based on pressure exchangers has reduced energy consumption to 2 kWh/m~3, which is the theoretical minimum limit for energy consumption for seawater applications of reverse osmosis. R.O. Kinetic of Tenerife, Canary Islands, has improved upon recent technology advances in pressure exchange-based systems by also harnessing the continuous kinetic cycle of water. The physical principle that serves as the foundation for the system is the "incompressible property of liquids," making it possible to submit a mass of water to a given pressure without expending any energy. Pressure exchangers are used to put this principle into practice.
Increasing public awareness of environmental protection and health has quickened the step of renewing public transport vehicles to make them more environment-friendly in major Chinese cities. The move demonstrates the Chinese government's determination to alleviate auto emission which is blamed for causing serious air pollution in urban areas. Tianjin, a north China port city and the fourth largest auto production base of China, saw an energy-saving and environment-friendly passenger bus rolling off production line recently.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and two Building America project teams are monitor-ing a house they built that is stuffed to the rooftop with energy-saving technologies. It is the first in a planned series of six test houses with the goal of eventually building a structure that has zero net energy consumption. The first house, a Habitat for Humanity home in Lenoir City, TN, is proving itself a champ. The average cost per day was 87 cents for the first 304 days of careful monitoring - Nov. 15 to Sept. 9 - for all energy including plug loads for this 1,067-square-foot house, occupied by a family of four. The house's energy efficiency is about 50 percent "better than code," a short way of saying better than what would satisfy the International Energy Conservation Code. That was the performance for the house's first 300 days of operation, says Jeff Christian, director of ORNL's Buildings Technology Center.
Many things can affect the efficiency of an HVAC system. One component in particular strikes at the heart of a system's efficiency: the motor. The motor type and, perhaps more importantly, its maintenance have a great effect on overall system efficiency. Mark Kendall, director of technical services for the Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association (GAMA), Arlington, Va., recently addressed an audience of HVAC engineers at the 2004 ASHRAE Winter Meeting in Anaheim, Calif. His topic was "Energy-Saving Opportunities in Residential Air Handler Efficiency."
Boston — The 22-story McCormack Building is home to 2,200 employees who work for a number of state agencies, including the building's largest tenant, the Bureau of State Office Buildings (BSOB). Built in 1975, the 800,000-square-foot McCormack Building was originally designed with a steam absorption chiller system consisting of two 600-ton, single-stage, steam absorption chillers. Steam was purchased to drive the chillers and provide space heat and domestic hot water to the building. As part of an energy-saving program in the mid-1980s, the steam absorption system was replaced with three 450-ton electric centrifugal chillers. Unfortunately, there was not enough electricity available, so just two of the three chillers actually went on-line, providing 900 tons of cooling capacity to the building. Since that time, the demands on the building's electrical system have continued to increase significantly.
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are equipped with an internal combustion engine (ICE) and an electric drive (ED). They are devided into serial and parallel HEVs, depending on the power flow. The ED needs to be controlled. This allows reduction of emissions and the amount of gas. In regenerative braking, the braking energy is converted into electrical energy and fed into a battery. The fuel efficiency of the ICE in the driving state is increased by loading or uploading through ED. Cut off the ICE while standstill reduces the waste of gas. A simulation tool in MATLAB/SIMULINK calculates the amount of gas for an HEV of parallel type for a given driving cycle. The drives are considered as efficiency maps from measured data. The fuel economy of the HEV depends on the driving cycle, the vehicle mass and the engine speed while shift of gears. For a vehicle of Minivan class, the saving is between 17% up to 25% compared to a vehicle driven by an ICE only.
Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry held the first meeting to make steel technology strategy map in order to show guideline for steel technological strategy in 2020. METI tries to improve international competitiveness and keep stable supply of world no.1 steel products to support Japanese manufacturing. METI also suggests next generation technology development including lower CO2 emission, saving energy, new steel materials along with technology of raw materials using by making use of steel making infrastructure and technology.
来源期刊：Journal of University of Science and Technology Beijing
年/卷/期：2004 / 11 / 2
Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within +- 7 deg C and the finished carbonization time within +- 10 min is more than 80 percent, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92 percent. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.