A staggering 65% of Germany's electricity production could come from renewable energy by 2050 if the country got serious about saving energy, new studies drawn up for the German environment ministry say. This effort would principally come about by convincing people and companies to use less energy while making further inroads to energy efficiency, the co-authors the German Centre for Aviation and Aerospace (DLR), ifeu and the Wuppertal Institut suggest. The benefits could amount to as much as a three-quarter cut in national greenhouse gas emission by 2050; the replacement of motor fuels with more environment-friendly alternatives could reach 30% by the same date, they reckon.
Microencapsulation is a process in which chemicals are released in a controlled manner over a long period. The present paper deals with various finishes, such as chemical masking, insect and mosquito repellent, perfumes, aromatherapy, bio-surfactants, enzymes and detergents, with respect to their application on textiles by use of microencapsulation techniques. This novel technique has many advantages as compared to conventional processes, in terms of economy, energy saving, eco-friendliness and controlled release of substance. The objectives, preparation and application of microcapsules have been dealt with in detail in this paper.
It is commonly assumed that solar hot water systems save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The net energy requirement of solar hot water systems has rarely been analysed, including their embodied energy. The extent to which solar hot water systems save energy compared to conventional systems in Melbourne, Australia, is shown through a comparative net energy analysis. It was shown that the embodied energy component of the net energy requirement of solar and conventional hot water systems was insignificant. The solar hot water systems provided a net energy saving compared to the conventional systems after 0.5-2 years, for electric- and gas-boosted systems respectively.
In the present study a representative sample (N = 797) of the Swedish population was surveyed, with regard to attitudes related to energy policy issues (e.g., environmental attitudes, risk perceptions, and attitudes towards different energy production systems), and self-reported electricity saving behavior. These factors were considered relevant in a Swedish energy policy context, due to the planned phase-out of nuclear power. Citizens' attitudes have traditionally been important factors in energy policy-making, especially nuclear policy. One of the conditions for a successful phase-out is decreased levels of electricity consumption among households and in industry, in order to compensate for the loss in energy production. Respondents reported positive attitudes to the environment in general and to electricity saving, while the attitudes to nuclear power as an energy production system in Sweden were relatively negative. Perceived risk was an important predictor of these attitudes and it was concluded that it is important to investigate factors behind this variable. The relationship between attitudes towards electricity saving and electricity saving behavior was weak, It is suggested that a contribution of psychological knowledge in energy conservation campaigns could be to elaborate on people's willingness to be public-spirited citizens in combination with their pro-environmental attitudes. Viklund (1999, Electricity saving: Attitudes and behavior of Swedish households. Center for Risk Research, Stockholm.) presented more data from the survey referred to here.
When electrical energy cost has become a question or survival for all industries. Textile sector is no exception. Organized sector and small scale unorganized units, all are struggling for their existence in this era of fierce competition. ATIRA, a premier institute in Textile Research, Development and Consultancy is involved in Energy Audit since 1955 with rich experience of entire textile activity spectrum like Ginning, Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Processing and Garment manufacturing. AT.IRA has a proven track record in Electrical and Thermal Energy Audit including Humidification and Ventiliation areas of textile units all over India and abroad. ATIRA can help in finding solutions to reduce the energy costs by carrying out Energy Audits in Electrical, Steam & Heat Utilization, Humidification and Ventiliation as well as overall Scope of energy saving in entire process by detail study and process optimization.
Commenting on some negative effects of traditional conditioning strategies of indoor thermal environment in warm climates, the authors present a fundamental concept of thermal comfort and acceptability, new air-conditioning strategies by using fluctuating air movement based on the findings of human responses to transient thermal environment, and a prediction of energy saving caused by elevated indoor temperature settings. In addition, how to meet the requirement of providing human-beings a healthy, comfortable and affordable indoor air temperature, and to achieve a goal of sustainable development are also discussed in this paper.
This paper presents the first study of standby power use and its saving potential in China. Standby power use refers to power consumed by appliances when they are switched off or are not providing their intended functions. Appliances in 28 urban Chinese homes were surveyed and standby power use was measured. The combined standby power use was about 29 W per home. However, many occupants unplug appliances when not in use, so standby energy use accounts for 50-200 kWh per year in an average urban home. Residential standby power consumption in China requires the electrical output equivalent of at least six 500 MW power plants. Levels of standby power use in Chinese homes are below those observed in developed countries but still high in part because Chinese appliances have higher standby than similar products in developed countries. Existing technologies are available to greatly reduce standby power at low costs.
There has been a continuing effort to advance the understanding and modeling of frost formation on refrigerated surfaces during the last two decades for better design of air-to-refrigerant heat transfer equipment and effective and energy-saving control of defrosting processes. A review and comparative analysis of the available literature concerning frost properties, correlations, and mathematical models are presented in this study to provide an overview of the analytical tools for researchers, product developers, and designers. The frost research can be divided into two general groups-experimental correlations and mathematical models. In general, the properties correlated are the frost thermal conductivity, the frost average density, and air-frost heat transfer coefficient (Nusselt number). A limited operational range of these relations is observed. The mathematical models include both differential and integral approaches, which are, in general, solved numerically. These models are classified based on the geometrical configuration of cold surface. A comprehensive comparison of the models is given to assist the reader in making their decisions for design analysis. The existing gaps in the frost research are identified and recommendations are made.
Hitoshi ASANO;Terushige FUJII;Yoshinori HISAZUMI Tetsuo ABIKO;Tomohiro HORI
来源期刊：Thermal Science and Engineering
年/卷/期：2004 / 12 / 4
Combined heat and power supplying system called as co-generation system has attracted interests as a solution of energy saving. In this system utilization of the waste heat is very important to achieve higher efficiency. However, it is difficult to apply such system to housing, because the amount of its heat demand is low and concentrates mainly in the evening. A new type of co-generation system for a multiple dwelling house is proposed and named as "Neighboring Communities Co-generation System" [1, 2]. A schematic figure of its concept is shown in Fig. 1. Each house has a heat storage unit for a heat supply of a short time, such as shower. These heat storage units are connected to a generator by a single loop of hot water. This system can make the pipe size smaller and the amount of heat supply smaller due to heat storage in each house. This feature leads to decreasing of heat loss from the heat supply loop and reduction of the installing cost. To realize this system, compact heat storage unit of quick response is required. In this study, a compact heat storage unit with a phase change material (PCM) was manufactured by utilizing a plate fin type brazing heat exchanger and was tested on heat transfer performance in heat storage process with melting and heat release process with solidification of PCM.