Chen Lingling;Ruan Feier;Sun Ying;Chen Haiying;Liu Mingbin;Zhou Jianfang;Qin Kun
来源期刊：Journal of Medical Virology
年/卷/期：2019 / 91 / 6
Abstract Avian H7N9 subtype influenza virus infects human with high case‐fatality rate since it emerged in 2013. Although the vaccination has been rapidly used in poultry due to the emergence of highly pathogenic strain, this virus remains prevalent in this region. Thus, rapid diagnosis both in poultry and human clinic is critically important for the control and prevention of H7N9 infection. In this study, a batch of H7 subtype‐specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed and a pair of mAb, 2B6, and 5E9 were used to establish a double‐antibody sandwich enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify H7 protein and detect influenza A virus baring H7 subtype HA. The lowest detection limit for the recombinant H7 protein was 10?ng/mL and 0.5?HAU/50?μL of A/Guangdong/17SF003/2016(H7N9), 2?HAU/50?μL of A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7) and A/Anhui/1/2013(H7N9) for live virus, respectively. The ELISA could not only detect the prevailing H7N9 virus, but also antigenic drift H7 subtype viruses, showing excellent sensitivity and high specificity. Hence, it could serve as a valuable approach to diagnose H7 subtype virus which showed great potential to cause pandemic, as well as antigen quantification.
Schulze, Katharina;Malek, Ziga;Verburg, Peter H.
来源期刊：Forest Ecology and Management
Forests provide numerous ecosystem services, such as timber yields, biodiversity protection and climate change mitigation. The type of management has an effect on the provision of these services. Often the demands for these services can lead to conflict - wood harvest can negatively impact biodiversity and climate change mitigation capacity. Although forest management differences are important, spatially explicit data is lacking, in particular on a global scale. We present here a first systematic approach which integrates existing data to map forest management globally through downscaling national and subnational forest data. In our forest management classification, we distinguished between two levels of forest management, with three categories each. Level 1 comprised primary, naturally regrown and planted forests. Level 2 distinguished between different forest uses. We gathered documented locations, where these forest categories were observed, from the literature and a database on ecological diversity. We then performed multinomial logit regression and estimated the effect of 21 socio-economic and bio-physical predictor variables on the occurrence of a forest category. Model results on significance and effect direction of predictor variables were in line with findings of previous studies. Soil and environmental properties, forest conditions and accessibility are important determinants of the occurrence of forest management types. Based on the model results, likelihood maps were calculated and used to spatially allocate national extents of level 1 and level 2 forest categories. When compared to previous studies, our maps showed higher agreement than random samples. Deviations between observed and predicted plantation locations were mostly below 10 km. Our map provides an estimation of global forest management patterns, enhancing previous methodologies and making the best use of data available. Next to having multiple applications, for example within global conservation planning or climate change mitigation analyses, it visualizes the currently available data on forest management on a global level.
Objective The aim of this study was to report cases of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) associated with targeted therapy (TT) with or without concomitant antiresorptive treatment, among the Copenhagen ONJ cohort, which includes all consecutive cases of MRONJ seen in Copenhagen. Study Design We retrospectively studied the treatment of 204 consecutive patients with MRONJ, seen between January 2010 and May 2016, to identify those associated with TT. Results We detected 7 cases of MRONJ associated with TT (3.4%). Four patients received TT only, whereas 3 were concomitantly treated with bisphosphonates (n?=?3) and/or denosumab (n?=?3). The TT regimens included sunitinib (Sutent) (n?=?1), everolimus (Afinitor) (n?=?1), erlotinib (Tarceva) (n?=?1), bevacizumab (Avastin) (n?=?3), dasatinib (Sprycel) (n?=?1) and imatinib (Glivec) (n?=?1). The MRONJ stage included stages 1 and 2, and mean score on the visual analogue scale for pain in the jaw was 4.0. Conclusions Health care providers should be aware of the possibility of MRONJ associated with the TT agents sunitinib, everolimus, and dasatinib and uncommon cancer types, including renal cell carcinoma, non–small-cell lung cancer, glioblastoma, and leukemia, where MRONJ may also occur.
Eric Miller/World Economic Forum NEW DELHI—The announcement of India's maiden mission to Mars is doing little to cheer Indian scientists disappointed with proposed spending increases for research in a new government budget plan. The annual budget proposal presented to India's parliament on 16 March by Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee calls for the operating budgets for science to rise, on average, by about 5% in 2012-2013—less than what many scientists had expected. "This is not good news" because the increases don't keep pace with inflation, which has been running at about 10%, says physicist Ajay K. Sood, president of the Indian Academy of Sciences in Bangalore. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh had raised expectations in parts of India's scientific community when he said earlier this year that India needed to double the share of its gross domestic product spent on research to 2% over the next 5 years. The new budget, however, suggests that, in the short term, government spending will help make only modest progress toward reaching that goal. India's $1.4 billion budget for the Ministry of Science Technology would get a 5% increase, with $100 million earmarked for a new National Science and Engineering Research Board that would award competitive grants in a process modeled on that used by the U.S. National Science Foundation. The budget of the Ministry of Earth Sciences, currently $305 million, would also get a 5% increase. Spending on weather forecasting and monsoon monitoring would double to $100 million. The budget's biggest surprise is a $41 million plan to launch a satellite in November 2013 that would orbit Mars. ScienceInsider has learned that the satellite is expected to weigh less than 500 kilograms and carry a 25-kilogram scientific payload. It will aim for a highly elliptical orbit around Mars and collect data on the red planet's atmosphere, climate, geology, and suitability for life. Overall, however, the Department of Space would see a 1% cut from its current budget of about $1.4 billion. Future budgets might look brighter for science, analysts say. "This is a resource limited situation, but things may look up in the coming years," says space scientist Krishnaswamy Kasturirangan, a member of a government planning commission that is preparing a 5-year science spending plan for the government. But he warns that "some serious prioritization needs to be undertaken by the scientific departments." The budget plan now goes to Parliament, which could approve it within weeks. India's 2012-13 budget year begins on 1 April.
Tabuchi, Sawako;Gilmer, Jesse, I;Purba, Karen;Person, Abigail L.
来源期刊：The Journal of Neuroscience: The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
年/卷/期：2019 / 39 / 7
Cerebellar granule cells (GrCs) constitute over half of all neurons in the vertebrate brain and are proposed to decorrelate convergent mossy fiber (MF) inputs in service of learning. Interneurons within the GrC layer, Golgi cells (GoCs), are the primary inhibitors of this vast population and therefore play a major role in influencing the computations performed within the layer. Despite this central function for GoCs, few studies have directly examined how GoCs integrate inputs from specific afferents, which vary in density to regulate GrC population activity. We used a variety of methods in mice of either sex to study feedforward inhibition recruited by identified MFs, focusing on features that would influence integration by GrCs. Comprehensive 3D reconstruction and quantification of GoC axonal boutons revealed tightly clustered boutons that focus feedforward inhibition in the neighborhood of GoC somata. Acute whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from GrCs in brain slices showed that, despite high GoC bouton density, fast phasic inhibition was very sparse relative to slow spillover mediated inhibition. Dynamic-clamp simulating inhibition combined with optogenetic MF activation at moderate rates supported a predominant role of slow spillover mediated inhibition in reducing GrC activity. Whole-cell recordings from GoCs revealed a role for the density of active MFs in preferentially driving them. Thus, our data provide empirical confirmation of predicted rules by which MFs activate GoCs to regulate GrC activity levels.
This research tested a model for responses to perceptions of relational devaluation in newly formed friendships. Relational devaluation is the perception of an unexpected decline in how close, important, or valuable a relationship partner considers the self to be. Borrowed from the theory of hurt feelings (Leary & Springer, 2001), relational devaluation is thought to trigger hurt feelings, which serve as a warning to the self that a given relationship is at risk of dissolution. The proposed model integrated the theory of hurt feelings with research on self-evaluation motivations. The model made the following predictions: (1) When explained situationally (e.g., via external justification), perceptions of relational devaluation should lead to inflexible self-evaluative motivations, which are those that maintain or bolster self-perceptions, such as self-enhancement and self-verification. (2) When no situational explanations are available, perceptions of relational devaluation should lead to flexible self-motivations, which are those that involve attempts to “objectively” evaluate the self, such as self-assessment and self-improvement. (3 & 4) Regardless of external justification, hurt feelings should derive from perceptions of relational devaluation and inflexible motivations should be activated when relational devaluation is not perceived. A 2 (Relational Devaluation) x 2 (External Justification) factorially designed deception study tested the model. After developing closeness with a female experimental confederate, 83 female participants learned via alleged experimenter error that the confederate felt either as close or a lot less close to them than participants had expected. Then participants overheard the confederate's comment to the experimenter that either explained the feedback as a mistake (external justification) or not. Participants' hurt feelings and automatic self-relevant thoughts were measured in addition to trait level affect intensity. Analyses provided no support for the theory of hurt feelings. However, feelings of support were reduced when relational devaluation was perceived either directly from the initial feedback or indirectly when the overheard comment undermined feedback that participants were valued. This indirect relational devaluation also resulted in less positive automatic self-relevant thoughts. Unexpectedly, participants differed more in terms of positive thoughts, which are characteristic of inflexible motivations, than negative thoughts.
The extant literature on the commons describes a large number of factors that could explain the drama of the commons or why some commons are managed well but others are not. However, little is known about the effects of land fragmentation on the governance of the commons. This question is important for developing countries, especially China where land holdings are highly fragmented with farmers having on average 4.127 plots of land. We employ ordered probit and step wise regression based on data from a survey of 3895 households from 284 villages in 17 provinces or regions in China. We find, consistent with theoretical expectation, that land fragmentation has a negative and significant effect on collective action and the governance of the commons. Farmers with more plots of land are more likely to free ride and less likely to contribute to collective action. Our findings have important implications for the governance of the commons specially in developing countries.