In order to mitigate air pollution problems caused mainly by the excessive emission of carbon dioxide, in 2012, the South Korean government decided to introduce a renewable portfolio standards (RPS) program that requires electricity providers to gradually increase their production of renewable energy. In order to meet the government’s target through this RPS program, electricity providers in Korea have looked to various types of new and renewable energy resources, such as biomass, wind, and solar. Recently, floating photovoltaic (PV) systems have attracted increased interest in Korea as a desirable renewable energy alternative. This paper provides a discussion of recent research into floating PV systems and the installation of floating PV power plants in Korea from 2009 to 2014. To date, thirteen floating PV power plants have been installed in Korea, and several plans are underway by many different organizations, including government-funded companies, to install more floating PV power plants with various generation capacities. These building trends are expected to continue due to the Korean government’s RPS program.
Wang, Xiaochun 1;Chen, Shu 2;Wan, Kuiyuan 2;Yin, Xiaocai 3;Zhu, Xiaohua 2;Pan, Jing 2;Yang, Yongliang 2 1 National Research Center for Geoanalysis, 100037, China, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Anshan Normal College, 114016, China firstname.lastname@example.org 2 National Research Center for Geoanalysis, 100037, China email@example.com 3 College of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, Qingdao University, 266071, China
来源期刊：Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
年/卷/期：2000 / 98 / 6
Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soils of Changbai Mountain, Northeastern China, have been quantified by gas chromatography with electron capture detector and the altitude distributions and possible pollution sources were analyzed. The concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑DDTs and ∑7PCBs were in the range of 3.09–25.6, 0.96–19.4 and 7.32–26.1 ng/g dw, respectively. The concentration of α-HCH, β-HCH, p,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, PCB 101, 138, 153, and 180 showed increasing trends with altitude. ∑7PCBs in surface soils of Changbai Mountain were significantly higher than that in Chinese background areas. The concentration of lower volatile PCB isomers showed positive correlation with altitude. These pollutants may originate from the adjacent industrial and agricultural areas via atmospheric transport and cold-trapping effect through wet precipitation. Additional, DDTs may cause a certain potential ecological risks on birds and soil organisms and the usage of lindane in the adjacent areas cannot be excluded in Changbai Mountain.
The Casella-Hypertherm Recycling Partnership (CHRP) is a collaboration between a waste management company and a manufacturer that has created a unique recycling environment for companies in the Upper Valley region of Vermont and New Hampshire. This article presents the CHRP as a novel form of industrial symbiosis (IS) using the recently published theoretical framework of IS dynamics proposed by Boons et al. We present this partnership in the academic literature for the first time and also gauge the adequacy of the typology when faced with a new model of IS. We argue that the CHRP exhibits qualities of multiple dynamics, and may in fact be an example of a new dynamic which we call “active facilitation”. Finally, the article also contributes evidence to the Boons et al. generative research question about the relationship between initial conditions and specific dynamics by analyzing the context in which the CHRP emerged.
Liu, Yin 1;Su, Gaoxing 1;Wang, Fei 2;Jia, Jianbo 1;Li, Shuhuan 1;Zhao, Linlin 3;Shi, Yali 4;Cai, Yaqi 4;Zhu, Hao 3;Zhao, Bin 4;Jiang, Guibin 4;Zhou, Hongyu 5;Yan, Bing 1 1 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University , Jinan, Shandong 250100, China. 2 Jinan Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau , Jinan, Shandong 250014, China. 3 Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University , Camden, New Jersey 08102, United States. 4 Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100085, China. 5 School of Environment, Jinan University , Guangzhou, Guangdong 510632, China.
Li, Jinhui 1;Dong, Qingyin 2;Liu, Lili 2;Song, Qingbin 1 1 School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 100084, China, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 100084, China firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Basel Convention Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific, 100084, China, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, 100084, China
Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volume is increasing, worldwide. In 2011, the Chinese government issued new regulations on WEEE recycling and disposal, establishing a WEEE treatment subsidy funded by a levy on producers of electrical and electronic equipment. In order to evaluate WEEE recycling treatment costs and revenue possibilities under the new regulations, and to propose suggestions for cost-effective WEEE management, a comprehensive revenue-expenditure model (REM), were established for this study, including 7 types of costs, 4 types of fees, and one type of revenue. Since TV sets dominated the volume of WEEE treated from 2013 to 2014, with a contribution rate of 87.3%, TV sets were taken as a representative case. Results showed that the treatment cost varied from 46.4 RMB/unit to 82.5 RMB/unit, with a treatment quantity of 130,000 units to 1,200,000 units per year in China. Collection cost accounted for the largest portion (about 70.0%), while taxes and fees (about 11.0 %) and labor cost (about 7.0 %) contributed less. The average costs for disposal, sales, and taxes had no influence on treatment quantity (TQ). TQ might have an adverse effect on average labor and management costs; while average collection and purchase fees, and financing costs, would vary with purchase price, and the average sales fees and taxes would vary with the sales of dismantled materials and other recycled products. Recycling enterprises could reduce their costs by setting up online and offline collection platforms, cooperating with individual collectors, creating door-to-door collection channels, improving production efficiency and reducing administrative expenditures. The government could provide economic incentives—such as subsidies, low-cost loans, tax cuts and credits—and could also raise public awareness of waste management and environmental protection, in order to capture some of the WEEE currently discarded into the general waste stream. Foreign companies with advanced WEEE utilization technology could invest or participate in this area, producing profits for themselves while helping to develop and implement environmentally friendly and energy-saving technologies applicable to the Chinese market.
The aim of this study was to use the life cycle assessment tool to assess, from an environmental point of view, the different possible municipal solid waste (MSW) management scenarios for the island of Mauritius. The scenarios include landfilling with energy recovery (S1), incineration with energy recovery (S2), composting, incineration and landfilling (S3) and finally composting, recycling, incineration and landfilling (S4). The MSW generated in 2010 was selected as the functional unit. Foreground data were collected through surveys and literature. Background data were obtained from ecoinvent data in SimaPro 8 libraries. The scenarios were compared both through the CML-IA baseline-midpoint method and the ReCiPe end-point method. From the midpoint method, the results obtained indicates that landfilling (S1) has the greatest impact in all the analyzed impact categories except ozone layer depletion and human toxicity, while incineration (S2) has the least impact on almost all the analyzed damage categories except in global warming potential and human toxicity. The collection and transportation of waste has a significant impact on the environment. From the end-point method, S4 reduces the damage impact categories on Human Health, Ecosystems and Resources due to the recycling process. S3 is not favorable due to the impact caused by the composting process. However, it is also very important to emphasize that for incineration, the best available technology with energy recovery shall be considered. It is recommended that S2 and S4 are considered for strategic planning.
Wang, Man 1;Li, Gang 1;Huang, Lihui 2;Xue, Jing 1;Liu, Quan 1;Bao, Nan 1;Huang, Ji 1 1 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China. 2 Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250100, China. Electronic address: email@example.com.
Luo, Xiangyu 1;Liang, Xu 2;Lin, Jeen-Shang 2 1 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA;Now at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA 2 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
来源期刊：Water Resources Research
年/卷/期：2000 / 52 / 6
The role of groundwater in sustaining plant transpiration constitutes an important but not well-understood aspect of the interactions between groundwater, vegetation, the land surface, and the atmosphere. The effect of the hydraulic redistribution (HR) process by plant roots on the interplay between plant transpiration and groundwater dynamics under water-limited climates is investigated by using the Variable Infiltration Capacity Plus (VIC+) land surface model. Numerical experiments, with or without explicitly considering HR, are conducted on soil columns over a range of groundwater table depths (GWTDs) under different vegetative land covers, soil types, and precipitation conditions. When HR is not included, this study obtains transpiration-GWTD relationships consistent with those from watershed studies that do not include HR. When HR is included, the transpiration-GWTD relationships are modified. The modification introduced by HR is manifested in the soil moisture of the root zone. The mechanism of HR is explained by detailing the roles of the hydraulically redistributed water, the upward diffusion of soil water, and the daytime root uptake. We have found that HR is particularly important in water-limited climates under which plants have high transpiration demand. At the beginning stage of a dry period, HR modulates the severe impacts that climate has on plant transpiration. Only after a prolonged dry period, impacts of HR are lessened when the groundwater table drops below the depth of water uptake by roots and are diminished when plant transpiration is decoupled from groundwater dynamics.
Munz, Nicole A 1;Burdon, Francis J 2;de Zwart, Dick 3;Junghans, Marion 4;Melo, Laura 2;Reyes, Marta 2;Schönenberger, Urs 2;Singer, Heinz P 2;Spycher, Barbara 2;Hollender, Juliane 5;Stamm, Christian 2 1 Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland;Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland. 2 Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland. 3 Mermayde, Groet, The Netherlands. 4 Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology Eawag-EPFL, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland. 5 Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Dübendorf, Switzerland;Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.