Kanan, Sofian 1 ; Moyet, Matthew A 2 ; Arthur, Robert B 2 ; Patterson, Howard H 2 1 Department of Biology, Chemistry & Environmental Sciences, American University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates 2 Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
来源：Catalysis Reviews: Science and Engineering
年/卷/期：2020 年62 卷1 期
Pesticides and organic waste constitute a group of environmental pollutants that are widely distributed in our environment due to various human activities. Adsorptive removal and photocatalytic degradation of these pollutants from water have emerged as energy and cost-effective technologies. However, advanced oxidation technologies are gaining attention as an effective method for wastewater treatment capable of degrading a diverse spectrum of organic contaminants. Photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation technology to alleviate water pollution problems. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is the most popular photocatalyst due to its low cost, nontoxicity, high oxidizing abilities, and easy immobilization on various surfaces. The current review aims to highlight recent advancements in photocatalytic degradation of pesticides and major organic pollutants using TiO2-based photocatalysts. Indeed, most of the methods, which employed potent catalysts, showed and exhibited successful degradation of the pesticides under various conditions. We believe this topic of research is extremely vital and will continue to grow in recent years, reaching ultimate desirable results and find more applications in different fields of study.
Tsai, Meng-Shan 1 ; Chen, Mei-Huei 2 ; Lin, Ching-Chun 3 ; Liu, Chen-Yu 3 ; Chen, Pau-Chung 3 1 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan, Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan 2 Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan 3 Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan
年/卷/期：Dec 2019 年179 卷
The life style and child raising environment in Asia are quite different compared with Western countries. Besides, the children's environmental threats and difficulties in conducting studies could be different. To address children's environmental health in Asia area, the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia (BiCCA) was co-established in 2011. We reviewed the mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, and environmental tobacco smoke in pervious based on birth cohort studies in Asia. The aim of this study was to summarize the traditional environmental pollution and the target subjects were also based on the birth cohort in Asia area. Environmental pollutants included air pollutants, pesticides focusing on organochlorine pesticides, diakylphosphates, and pyrethroid, and heavy metals including lead, arsenic, cadmium, manganese, vanadium, and thallium. Fetal growth and pregnancy outcomes, childhood growth and obesity, neurodevelopment and behavioral problems, and allergic disease and immune function were classified to elucidate the children's health effects. In total, 106 studies were selected in this study. The evidences showed air pollution or pesticides may affect growth during infancy or childhood, and associated with neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems. Prenatal exposure to lead or manganese was associated with neurodevelopmental or behavioral problems, while exposure to arsenic or cadmium may influence fetal growth. In addition to the harmonization and international collaboration of birth cohorts in Asia; however, understand the whole picture of exposure scenario and consider more discipline in the research are necessary.
Jiao, Cong 1 ; Chen, Lei 1 ; Sun, Cheng 1 ; Jiang, Yue 1 ; Zhai, Limei 2 ; Liu, Hongbin 2 ; Shen, Zhenyao 1 1 State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, PR China, PR China firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Non-point Source Pollution Control, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100081, PR China, PR China
年/卷/期：Dec 10, 2019 年259 卷
In recent years, excessive application and loss of pesticides have caused great risks to the aquatic systems, but the spatio-temporal variability in the ecological risk that agricultural pesticides pose to aquatic systems has not been explored at the national scale. In this study, an integrated assessment framework was proposed for the potential ecological risk of surface water caused by agricultural pesticide loss. The spatio-temporal variability in the potential ecological risk caused by agricultural pesticide runoff was evaluated. Based on the results, the total pesticide emissions increased from 165.47 tons in 2004 to 179.77 tons in 2017. Among the three pesticide types, insecticide had the largest application, but its runoff was estimated as the lowest. High-risk areas of insecticide runoff were concentrated in the east, south and central part of China, while the central region of China was identified as a hotspot due to the high and the ever-increasing ecological risk. This study provides an integrated method for potential ecological risk assessment of agricultural pesticide runoff to adjacent water bodies in large-scale regions and the results of the study have direct implications for environmental policies on pesticide management in China and around the world.
Yao, Tiantian 1 ; Liu, Anran 2 ; Liu, Yong 3 ; Wei, Min 4 ; Wei, Wei 2 ; Liu, Songqin 2 1 Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China, Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China 2 Jiangsu Engineering Laboratory of Smart Carbon-Rich Materials and Device, Jiangsu Province Hi-Tech Key Laboratory for Bio-medical Research, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189, China 3 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, PR China 4 College of Food Science and Technology, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, 450001, China
年/卷/期：Dec 1, 2019 年145 卷
The detection of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) has received considerable attention for their great harm to human beings. Herein, a novel ratiometric fluorescence biosensor was constructed for the determination of OPs by using Scopoletin (SC) and Amplex Red (AR) as probe pairs that have opposite responses to MnO₂ nanosheets (MnO₂ NS). MnO₂ NS possess peroxidase-like catalytic activity, which could quench the fluorescence of SC as well as enhance the fluorescence of the non-fluorescent substance AR by oxidation. In the absence of OPs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) hydrolyzed acetylcholine chloride (ATCh) into choline (TCh) and acetate. TCh led the decomposition of MnO₂ NS to manganese ions (Mn²⁺), increasing signal of SC and decreasing signal of AR. In the presence of OPs, the activity of AChE was inhibited and the decomposition of MnO₂ NS was hindered, therefore the fluorescence intensity of SC was weak and the fluorescence intensity of AR had an obvious increase. Moreover, under the optimal conditions, the ratio of fluorescence intensity response recorded on the AR/SC increases with increasing the concentration of DDVP. The method has wider linear range of 5.0 pg/mL ∼500 ng/mL with a detection limit of 1.6 pg/mL, which is superior to previously reported methods. This strategy has also been applied to a visual observation based on the color change of the solution under UV light.
Lam, Chelsea H 1 ; Kurobe, Tomofumi 1 ; Lehman, Peggy W 2 ; Berg, Mine 3 ; Hammock, Bruce G 1 ; Stillway, Marie E 1 ; Pandey, Pramod K 4 ; Teh, Swee J 1 1 Aquatic Health Program, Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, University of California, Davis Davis California USA 2 California Department of Water Resources, Division of Environmental Services, Special Studies Section West Sacramento California USA 3 Applied Marine Sciences Santa Cruz California USA 4 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, University of California, Davis Davis California USA
来源：Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances &Environmental Engineering
年/卷/期：2020 年55 卷2 期
The herbicides glyphosate, imazamox and fluridone are herbicides, with low toxicity towards fish and invertebrates, which are applied to waterways to control invasive aquatic weeds. However, the effects of these herbicides on natural isolates of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria are unknown. Three species of microalgae found in the San Francisco Estuary (SFE)/Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (Delta) (Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlamydomonas debaryana, and Thalassiosira pseudonana) were exposed to the three herbicides at a range of concentrations in 96-well plates for 5-8 days. All three algal species were the most sensitive to fluridone, with IC50 of 46.9, 21, and 109 µg L-1 for M. aeruginosa, T. pseudonana and C. debaryana, respectively. Imazamox inhibited M. aeruginosa and T. pseudonana growth at 3.6 × 104 µg L-1 or higher, and inhibited C. debaryana growth at 1.0 × 105 µg L-1 or higher. Glyphosate inhibited growth in all species at ca. 7.0 × 104 µg L-1 or higher. Fluridone was the only herbicide that inhibited the microalgae at environmentally relevant concentrations in this study and susceptibility to the herbicide depended on the species. Thus, the application of fluridone may affect cyanobacteria and phytoplankton community composition in water bodies where it is applied.
Ademoyegun, Olufemi T 1 ; Okoh, Omobola O 2 ; Okoh, Anthony I 3 1 Univ Ft Hare, Dept Pure & Appl Chem, Alice, South Africa, Univ Ft Hare, Natl Hort Res Inst, Microbial Water Qual Monitoring Ctr, SAMRC, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria, Nigeria email@example.com 2 Univ Ft Hare, Dept Pure & Appl Chem, Alice, South Africa, Univ Ft Hare, SAMRC, Microbial Water Qual Monitoring Ctr, Alice, South Africa, South Africa 3 Univ Ft Hare, Dept Biochem & Microbiol, Appl & Environm Microbiol Res Grp, SAMRC,Microbial Water Qual Monitoring Ctr, Alice, South Africa, South Africa
来源：POLISH JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
年/卷/期：2020 年29 卷2 期
The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sewage sludge from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), with a view to study their contribution to the environmental pollution of the Amathole District in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography joined with micro electron capture detector (mu ECD). The limits of detection (LODs) of the tested congeners varied from 0.04 ng/g alpha-Lindane (alpha-BHC) to 0.49 ng/g (endosulfan sulfate), and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.22 ng/g (aldrin) to 2.17 ng/g delta-lindane (delta-BHC). Total concentrations of the 17 congeners for different seasons in the sludge ranged from 191 to 947 ng/g dw. For the six predominant congeners, the total highest concentration levels were found in this order dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD), alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, aldrin and endosulphate 1, and with values of 1512, 1330, 1095, 998, 994 and 547 ng/g respectively. For this result the contamination levels of some congeners for South African sludge can be categorized as high compared with European countries, but moderate to lower compared to other countries worldwide. Some congener (alpha-BHC, gamma-BHC, aldrin, endosulphate 1, DDD and DDT) contents in the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for 1000 ng/g set for Sigma DDT and 500 ng/g for other pesticide use of sludge in agriculture.
Shi, Rongguang 1 ; Yuan, Li 2 ; Chen, Mingli 2 ; Zheng, Xiangqun 1 ; Liu, Xiaowei 1 ; Zhao, Yujie 1 ; Liu, Aifeng 3 ; Jia, Jiaojiao 3 ; Xu, Mengmeng 3 ; Zhao, Zongshan 4 1 Minist Agr, Agroenvironm Protect Inst, Key Lab Environm Factors Control Agroprod Qual Sa, Tianjin, Peoples R China, Peoples R China 2 Northeastern Univ, Coll Sci, Res Ctr Analyt Sci, Shenyang, Peoples R China, Peoples R China 3 Chinese Acad Sci, Qingdao Inst Bioenergy & Bioproc Technol, CAS Key Lab Biobased Mat, Qingdao, Peoples R China, Peoples R China 4 Chinese Acad Sci, Qingdao Inst Bioenergy & Bioproc Technol, CAS Key Lab Biobased Mat, Qingdao, Peoples R China, Qingdao Univ, Coll Environm Sci & Engn, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China, Peoples R China firstname.lastname@example.org
来源：POLISH JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
年/卷/期：2020 年29 卷2 期
In this study, 10 frequently used pesticides in apple orchards from the major apple production area of China were identified through 150 questionnaires. Based on Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry, a method for detecting these pesticides in soils was developed. Typically, these compounds can be extracted from dry soil samples using dichloromethane: acetone (2:1, v:v) and purified by dispersive solid-phase extraction (PSA and C18). The qualitative and quantitative analyses can be undertaken by monitoring the MS1 precursor ions under full scan mode within a mass error of <5 ppm (resolution 120000). The recoveries ranged from 68.4% to 102.4% (SD<10.5%), the matrix effects induced signal fluctuation was less than 10%, and the intra- and inter-day precisions were all below 5%. For 14 surface soil samples randomly collected from an apple orchard in China, most pesticides presented the highest detection frequencies (100%), with imidacloprid and tebuconazole showing the highest residue levels (4.1-39.1 and 9.8-350.2 ng/g dry weight, respectively). Compared with previous methods for analyzing individual or several pesticides, the proposed method represents a promising means of investigating these frequently used pesticide residues in apple orchards in China.
Polat, Burak 1 ; Tiryaki, Osman 1 1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Çanakkale Turkey
来源：Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
年/卷/期：2020 年55 卷1 期
The effects of washing treatments on removal rates of some pesticides residues (acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos and formetanate hydrochloride) on pepper were investigated. Method verification was conducted through spiking pepper samples at 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 × MRL. QuEChERS method produced average recovery of 104.91% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 13.41%. LOQ values of acetamiprid, chlorpyrifos and formetanate hydrochloride were estimated as 2, 10 and 5 µg/kg, respectively. Capia peppers grown in open fields were sprayed three times with pesticides. Peppers were harvested after 1st, 2nd and 3rd day of the treatments. Then the peppers were subjected to tap water, acetic acid and citric acid washing and ultrasonic cleaning treatments (for 2 and 5 min). Based on three different harvest times and two different washing durations, processing factors (PFs) and reduction rates were calculated for each washing treatment. The residues gradually decreased during washing treatments with increasing process duration. Similarly, a gradual reduction was noted with the progress of harvest times. This in turn corresponded to an increase in PF. Ultrasonic cleaning and citric acid (9%) washing were more effective than the others. Non-systemic pesticides (chlorpyrifos) were more readily removed than the systemic ones (acetamiprid). Similarly, highly soluble pesticides exhibited higher reduction.
Jayakumar, Samidurai 1 ; Muralidharan, Subramanian 2 ; Dhananjayan, Venugopal 3 1 Division of Ecotoxicology, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 108, India, P.G. Research Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology, A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai, Tamil Nadu, 609 305, India email@example.com 2 Division of Ecotoxicology, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 108, India firstname.lastname@example.org 3 Division of Ecotoxicology, Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Anaikatty, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, 641 108, India, Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Division, ICMR-Regional Occupational Health Centre (Southern), Indian Council of Medical Research, Devanahalli, Bangalore, 562 110, India email@example.com
来源：Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Use of pesticides continues to be indiscriminate, and birds are one of the worst affected non-targeted organisms. Information on the ill effects of pesticides on birds far from desired in India. Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in colonial nesting birds in sanctuaries of India. A total of 76 individuals belonging to 14 species of birds found dead between March 2008 and March 2010 were analyzed for pesticide residues in various tissues. Of all the OCPs analyzed, concentration of HCH was found to be the highest. Magnitude of contamination varied widely among species. Accumulation pattern of OCPs in colonial nesting birds was in the order ∑HCH >∑endosulfan >∑DDT >heptachlor epoxide >dieldrin. Pesticides, namely p,p-DDE and β-HCH contributed most towards the total OCPs. Concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCH and isomers, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide were lower than the concentrations reported for various species of birds elsewhere in India. Although the sanctuaries presently studied have official boundaries, physical demarcations are missing and there are no proper earthen dykes particularly in Vedanthangal and Koonthankulam Bird Sanctuaries. During monsoon, runoff not only floods the Sanctuaries but also the cultivated areas nearby. Run off brings in residues of pesticides and fertilizers from the agricultural lands into the sanctuaries. Although OCP results in this study were below threshold limits, it may be noted that the long duration exposure even to low levels of pesticides could create a significant impact at population level. Hence, earthen dykes need to be built to avoid agricultural runoff entering the Sanctuary and also help to hold sufficient amount of water for breeding birds.