Is blue mussel caging an efficient method for monitoring environmental microplastics pollution?
The effectiveness of mussel caging for active microplastics (MPs) biomonitoring was investigated for the first time by comparing abundance and characteristics (shape, size, color and type of polymers) of MPs ingested by caged depurated blue mussels with those ingested by native mussels collected at the same sites and with those found in their surrounding environment (surface water and sediments). Mussels were exposed along a pollution gradient originating from a wastewater treatment plant discharge and near an abandoned coastal landfill. After 6 weeks of deployment, the majority (93%) of clean transplanted mussels had ingested MPs with a mean number of items ranging from 0.61 to 1.67 items/g. The occurrence, abundance and properties of MPs ingested by caged mussels were similar to those found in native mussels. Among the debris items detected in caged and native mussels, fragments were the most predominant type, consistent with the MPs found in their surrounding environment. MPs sizes were very similar whether in the water, sediments and both caged and native mussels, with a dominance of items <150 μm. Although some polymers were under-represented or totally absent in the caged mussels compared to overlying seawater or surrounding sediment, there was a good overlap in polymer types proportion being found between caged mussels and sediments (Morisita's index of similarity = 0.93) or seawater (0.86). Polystyrene dominated all samples in all the different matrices. Our study suggests that blue mussels caging may be a promising tool for MPs biomonitoring making monitoring more reliable with an accurate assessment of the biological effects of MPs over a predetermined exposure period. However, further methodological improvements should be considered to define a uniform protocol for blue mussels caging to allow spatial and temporal microplastics active biomonitoring.
Seasonal variability in metal and metalloid burdens of mussels: using data from the German Environmental Specimen Bank to evaluate implications for long-term mussel monitoring programs
Background: Metal and metalloid concentrations in mussels can vary between seasons. In biota monitoring, the sampling time is therefore an important issue. Within the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) program blue mussels (Mytilus edulis Complex) are sampled regularly since the 1980s. The samples are collected in two-monthly intervals at two North Sea sites and in 6-month intervals at one Baltic Sea site. All samples from one site and year are combined to annual composite samples and archived as sub-samples under cryogenic conditions. In order to investigate a possible reduction of the number of annual sampling intervals while maintaining comparability with the long-term composite sample data, the seasonal variability of metals/metalloids was analyzed based on the half-yearly and bimonthly samples of 2013, 2015 and 2017. Results: In mussels from the North Sea site Eckwarderhoerne seasonality of metals/metalloids was comparable in all 3 years (arsenic being the only exception). At the North Sea site Koenigshafen seasonality of cobalt, nickel, cadmium, copper, lead, and arsenic was comparable in 2013 and 2015 but not in 2017, while selenium showed the same seasonality in all 3 years. Within 1 year, concentrations of metals and metalloids can vary by the same order of magnitude as observed between annual composite samples of different years making it impossible to select just one representative sampling time point per year that would provide the same information as the respective annual composite sample. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of carefully selecting the sampling time point when using mussels in biota monitoring. For the German ESB program it is recommended to continue with the current sampling strategy and analyze annual composite samples in order to maintain comparability with the long-term data series, which are a special feature of the ESB.
Long-term monitoring of PCDD/Fs in soils in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator in China: Temporal variations and environmental impacts
Campaigns from 2008 to 2016 are carried out to study temporal variations and environmental impacts of polychlorinated dibenzopdioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDDFs) in soils in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in China. Results indicate that after 8year operation of HWI, the geometrical means of both the total concentrations and the TEQ values of PCDDFs in soils decrease from 1280 ngkg 1 and 3.08 ng WHOTEQkg 1 to 568 ngkg 1 and 2.70 ng WHOTEQkg 1 , respectively, showing generally limited impact on soils within 7.5 km. Temporal changes of PCDDFs congener profiles trend to profiles in combustion sources. Considering the whole studied area, results of principal component analysis between soils and emission sources show that instead of HWI, other sources including open burning, traffic, and cement plant are more responsible for PCDDFs accumulation. The modeling results of AERMOD indicate the dominant roles of wind velocities and directions on the deposition of PCDDFs emitted from HWI. The largest PCDDFs increase value in soils predicted by integrating AERMOD and a reservoir model is very limited after 25 years (2.03 10 5 ng WHOTEQkg 1 ), indicating relatively minor impacts of HWI on surrounding soils, but the noticeable impact on area downwind from the stack in short distance (e.g., within 0.5 km) should be recognized.
Spatiotemporal assessment of marine environmental monitoring programme based on DIN concentration in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent sea
The marine environment is rigorously protected in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and its adjacent sea, and routine monitoring is constantly upgraded. Therefore, scientific and efficient monitoring programmes are needed. Nitrogen is one of the most serious pollutants in the YRE. Obtaining the precise pollution areas of water quality grades (WQGs) are a scientific and management issue that requires optimization of monitoring programmes and interpolation methods. Based on spatiotemporal regression point means of surface with nonhomogeneity (STRPMSN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were estimated in a stratified heterogeneous estuary. The annual average areas of DIN Grades I and II were classified by interpolating the concentrations the values were 3145 km 2 , 1626 km 2 , 2320 km 2 and 3758 km 2 for February, May, August and November, respectively. This means that November had the best water condition, and May had the worst. Meanwhile, DIN area changes showed that the water condition changed due to removal of data much more in August and May than in February and November. The descending order of importance was August, May, February and November. Every month represented different runoff periods. Monitoring frequency should not be reduced. Removal of sampling data for the third stratum had a significant effect on the area. When the sampling data for outer boundary meshes of the third stratum were removed, the water condition became worse. However, when the sampling data for inner boundary meshes were removed, the water condition improved. New sites should be added to the outer boundary region to avoid interpolation instability and reduce the sensitivity of the existing sites. This study assesses the spatiotemporal effect of the marine environmental monitoring programmes on pollutant distribution by STRPMSN, and it offers guidance for more precise data acquisition and processing methods in the YRE and its adjacent sea.
Environmental radioactivity aspects of recent nuclear accidents associated with undeclared nuclear activities and suggestion for new monitoring strategies
Recently environmental radionuclide signals were observed in the atmosphere which could be associated with undeclared nuclear activities, not directly connected with development of nuclear weapons. Largescale contamination of European air with Ru106 observed in 2017 may represent such an accident, which was probably associated with the Mayak nuclear fuel reprocessing facility in the Chelyabinsk region of Russia. A recently announced nuclear accident at Nyonoska in the Archangelsk region may represent an undeclared nuclear activity associated with the development of a nuclear jet engine which could be based on radionuclide energy generator or a small nuclear reactor. It is concluded that environmental radioactivity impacts associated with recent nuclear activities create new challenges for fast and reliable national and international monitoring systems which would require development of new monitoring strategies.
Using drive-by health monitoring to detect bridge damage considering environmental and operational effects
Driveby Health Monitoring utilizes accelerometers mounted on vehicles to gather dynamic response data that can be used to continuously evaluate the health of bridges faster and with less equipment than traditional structural health monitoring practices. Because vehicles and bridges create a coupled system, vehicle acceleration data contains information about bridge frequencies that can be used as health indicators. However, for driveby health monitoring to be viable, variabilities in dynamic measurements caused by environmental and operational parameters, such as temperature, vehicle speed, traffic, and surface roughness need to be considered. In this paper, a finite element model of a simply supported bridge is developed considering the aforementioned variabilities and various levels of structural damage. Vehicle acceleration data obtained from the model is analyzed in the frequency domain and processed using a neural network architecture. This method is used to determine the relationships between noise inducing variables and changes in vehicle dynamic response spectrum these relationships are leveraged to predict the overall health of the subject bridge. The results from this study indicate that the proposed approach can serve as a viable health monitoring strategy and should be further tested on physical bridge systems. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Environmental baseline monitoring for shale gas development in the UK: Identification and geochemical characterisation of local source emissions of methane to atmosphere
Baseline mobile surveys of methane sources using vehiclemounted instruments have been performed in the Fylde and Ryedale regions of Northern England over the 201619 period around proposed unconventional (shale) gas extraction sites. The aim was to identify and characterise methane sources ahead of hydraulically fractured shale gas extraction in the area around drilling sites. This allows a potential additional source of emissions to atmosphere to be readily distinguished from adjacent sources, should gas production take place. The surveys have used ethane:methane (C2:C1) ratios to separate combustion, thermogenic gas and biogenic sources. Sample collection of source plumes followed by high precision 13 C analysis of methane, to separate and isotopically characterise sources, adds additional biogenic source distinction between active and closed landfills, and ruminant eructations from manure. The surveys show that both drill sites and adjacent fixed monitoring sites have cow barns and gas network pipeline leaks as sources of methane within a 1 km range. These two sources are readily separated by isotopes ( 13 C of 67 to 58 for barns, compared to 43 to 39 for gas leaks), and ethane:methane ratios (0.001 for barns, compared to 0.05 for gas leaks). Under a wellmixed daytime atmospheric boundary layer these sources are generally detectable as above baseline elevations up to 100 m downwind for gas leaks and up to 500 m downwind for populated cow barns. It is considered that careful analysis of these proxies for unconventional production gas, if and when available, will allow any fugitive emissions from operations to be distinguished from surrounding sources.
An empirical analysis of environmental pollutants on building construction sites for determining the real-time monitoring indices
Environmental pollutants emitted by various construction work and heavy equipment from construction sites, not only undermine the human living environment but also cause conflicts with residents near the construction sites. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the realtime monitoring indices of environmental pollutants in building construction using the datamining technique for managing the environmental pollutant emissions inside the construction site and reducing the ambient pollution levels that can impact on the residents near construction sites. Based on the realtime empirical data measured from sensors at a construction site every five minutes during earthwork, this study determined the key impact factors affecting the noise, vibration, and dust in construction sites, as monitoring indices. Then the feasibility of using the realtime monitoring indices for each environmental pollutant was proven through the application of the current relevant policies. The results of this study showed that by controlling the monitoring indices of environmental pollutants in construction sites, the proportions at which the levels of noise, vibration, and dust exceed the current policies can be reduced by up to 61.7%, 3.4%, and 81.2%, respectively. By using the methodology and results of this study, construction companies can systemically plan their construction work considering the key equipment to be used and can effectively manage the pollutants inside the construction sites.
Environmental Monitoring; Findings in the Area of Environmental Monitoring Reported from Yildiz Technical University (Optimization of T-shape slotted quartz tube with exit holes-atom trap-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry system for the accurate a