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外文会议

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  • [会议] The impact of pesticides on the electrogenic activity of the sludge in microbial fuel cells
    The influence of Gezagard herbicide (active ingredient - promethrin, 500 g/l) and fungicide Kolosal (active principle - tebuconazole 250 g/l) on the dynamics of electrical indicators of microbial fuel cells (MFC) with activated sludge treatment plants as a bioagent was studied. It was shown that the tested pollutants reduced the electrogenic activity of sludge in MFC when the content in wastewater was from 0.1 g/l. The studied toxicants in the indicated concentrations significantly inhibited the dehydrogenase activity of the sludge microorganisms and the total microbial number. At the same time, the Kolosal fungicide had a more pronounced negative effect on all the studied parameters than the Gezagard herbicide. There is a positive relationship between the results of evaluating the electrogenic activity of sludge and such classical methods of its analysis as dehydrogenase activity and the total microbial number. This suggests that the ability of the sludge to generate an electric current in MFC can be used as one of the parameters for assessing its physiological state. In addition, in the case of a mono-composition of pollutants, MFC with activated sludge can be used as a tool for the initial non-specific assessment of wastewater pollution by pesticides.
  • [会议] The Effect of Explant Types and Plant Growth Regulators On Callus Induction of Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her) In Vitro
    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of explant types and plant growth regulators on callus induction of geranium (Pelargonium graveolens L'Her). Callus induction was carried out by culturing leaf and petiole explants from ex vitro geraniums on MS + 0.5 mg/l 2.4-D + 0.1 and 0.3 mg/l Benzyladenine (BA) or Kinetin. Each culture was carried out in 5 replications, cultures were incubated in rooms 25°C and 600 lux. The parameters days for callus induction and percentage of callus formation were observed. Geranium callus formation was influenced by types of explants and plant growth regulators. Petiole explants was able to induce callus better than leaf explants. Days for callus induction at second week and percentage of callus formation of petiole explants were 58 and 58% compared to leaf explants were only 53 and 54%. Plant Growth Regulators BA combined with 2.4-D was able to induce callus better than kinetin. The best callus formation was produced from petiole explants cultured on MS + 0.5 mg/l 2.4-D + 0.3 mg/l BA by 84%.
  • [会议] Synthesis and characterization of thymol-loaded lauryl glycol chitosan for pesticide formulation
    Thymol is a hydrophobic active ingredient and widely used as an alternative pesticide for pest control. However, due its low solubility in water, a water-soluble carrier is required in its formulation. Therefore in this study, the potential of an amphiphilic chitosan, namely lauryl glycol chitosan (LGC) as a carrier to encapsulate and release thymol was evaluated. The physical and chemical properties of LGC were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectrometer, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR) Spectrometer, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Thermogravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). A Fluorescence Spectrometer was used to determine the critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of LGC in aqueous solution. The encapsulation efficiency of LGC for thymol was determined by using a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The FTIR and 1H NMR analyses confirmed the structure of the synthesized LGC. It was noted that the addition of lauryl and glycol groups to the chitosan backbone has enhanced the solubility properties of chitosan in neutral and basic media. TEM observation confirmed that LGC could form self-aggregates in the solution with a spherical shape. The CMC value determined for LGC was 0.008 mg/mL. LGC exhibited good affinity towards thymol with an encapsulation efficiency of 58%. The findings from in vitro release study showed that the LGC could prolong the release of thymol from its micelles. Results from this study highlight that LGC possesses great characteristics to be further developed as a promising carrier in the pesticide formulation.
  • [会议] Study of takeoff constraints for lifting an agriculture pesticide sprinkling multi-rotor system
    The revolution in the mechatronics field made a new era for the monitoring and supervision of agriculture management systems. In precision agriculture, crop protection drones have great potential due to its flexibility in handling to increase crop productivity. However, the multi-rotor aerial system working capability depends on the required thrust to be produced in order to lift the system from the ground position. This work proposes simulation and theoretical static thrust calculations to develop an autonomous multi-rotor system, which is capable of lifting the components, those are helpful for precision farming. This work starts with an analytical approach of the thrust equation and its influences at various parameters explained. The motion equations are derived using the kinetic energy, disk actuator theory and momentum theory. The thrust is calculated using the parameters, motor specifications, propeller dimensions and constant. If the calculated thrust is twice to the total weight of the multi-rotor system, then the system has the ability to fly comfortably toward the crop agriculture field. The calculation is done for different propellers and chosen the best one. The chosen theoretical result validated using a static thrust calculator in a Web site from “gobrushless.com.” The relative error between the simulated and theoretical results has shown only 2% of the difference.
  • [会议] A Novel Approach to detect the Compound Level of Fertilizer and Pesticide in the Soil
    Fertilizers (Triple superphosphate) and pesticide (fungicide and insecticide) are one of the major products used to increase the productivity of crops. As time passes the amount of pesticide in crops is not maintained fixed. Pesticide does react with water and the level of pesticide decreases day by day. Hence, it is important to know the present level of pesticide in soil and crops. TSP and pesticide (fungicide and insecticide) are used in this project as a sample of fertilizer and pesticide, cause of its high demand in Bangladesh. To detect the amount of TSP and pesticide in the oil sample, the conductivity property of TSP and pesticide (fungicide and insecticide) are used. Three separate solutions of TSP and pesticide (fungicide and insecticide) is made with water then AC source is applied to the solution instead of DC to avoid electrolysis of the given solution. Through the op-amp and two comparators, the final result is accomplished. Those two comparators, comparator 1 and comparator 2 were used to find the presence of 30%, 50%,70% TSP and Pesticide respectively. As result suggest, the resistance of the solution decreases with the incremental frequency. The compatible frequency for AC source is selected as 40 KHz. The reference voltage of comparator 1 is 1.4v and comparator 2 is 5v.
  • [会议] A novel calibration transfer method of NIR spectra to identify ultra-low concentration of pesticide residues
  • [会议] Ecotoxicological risk assessment for the herbicide glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA: analysis of host and microbiota response in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis
  • [会议] THE DEVELOPMENT OF SLOW-RELEASED FUNGICIDE PREPARATIONS BASED ON BIODEGRADABLE POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE) TO SUPPRESS ROOT-ROT PATHOGENIC FUNGI
    The use of chemical crop protection products takes the lead in worldwide agricultural technologies. However, a significant part of pesticides does not achieve the goals, disperses in the environment, and accumulates in crops and food products. Targeted and controlled delivery of pesticides helps to decrease the overuse of chemicals due to the prolonged gradual release of active ingredients from matrices and maintaining of effective concentration in the application zone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of embedded fungicide formulations to protect crops from root-rot pathogens. Three fungicides (tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and azoxystrobin) were embedded in biodegradable base made from a mixture of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and one of the fillers - peat, clay or wood flour. The powdered components, polymer + filler + fungicide (50:30:20 wt.%), were mixed and prepared as granules. The fungicidal effect of experimental formulations on root-rot pathogens was studied in vitro and in the rhizosphere soil of test crops (spring wheat and barley) in comparison with effect of conventional methods of soil treatment with fungicides. Regardless of the filler and the type of preparation, all formulations had a pronounced inhibitory effect on the growth of Fusarium verticillioides colonies. In the field soil samples with embedded fungicides, a decrease in the number of micromycetes, in particular phytopathogenic fungi Alternaría and Fusarium, was shown. The traditional forms of fungicides affected development of saprotrophic fungi, reduced the abundance of bacteria, and shifted the ratio of dominant taxa. In contrast, no decrease in the number of bacteria in soil samples was detected when embedded fungicides was used, and besides a stimulating effect on microbial abundance was revealed. In long-term experiments with plants, the healing effect of embedded formulations on the wheat and barley roots was obtained. After tillering stage, the biological effectiveness of both embedded and free fungicides was comparable. After heading stage, the maximum biological effectiveness of embedded fungicides, reached about 90% and superior the efficacy of free fungicides, was detected. Thus, developed embedded fungicides demonstrated a long-term functioning in the soil and effective suppression of phytopathogenic fungi on the wheat and barley roots.
  • [会议] Factors that affect the behavior of shallot farmers in the use of pesticides in Brebes Regency, Central Java, Indonesia
    The using of pesticides in shallot cultivation in the Brebes Regency is very intensive. It can have an impact on health and the environment. Several factors influence the behavior of shallots farmers in the use of pesticides. The purpose of this research was to identify the dominant factors that influence the behavior of shallots farmers in the use of pesticides. Interviews were conducted on 228 shallots farmers in Brebes, Central Java, Indonesia. Information collected includes the behavior of farmers in the use of pesticides, the characteristics of farmers, agricultural facilities, and farmers' knowledge of pesticides. Data analysis used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques. Based on the results of the analysis, that the behavior of farmers in the use of pesticides was influenced by the characteristic factors of 8%, agricultural facilities 26% and knowledge by 36%. The variables that have the most influence on the characteristic factors were the length of farming, the factor of the facility was the supply of seeds, and the factor of knowledge was information between groups. The dominant factor that most influences the behavior of farmers in the use of pesticides was the knowledge factor with the most dominant variable was the information between groups. Based on our study, it was revealed that effective counseling about the wise use of pesticides could be done through empowering farmer groups.
  • [会议] Farmer's behavior in using pesticides on shallots cultivation in Solok Highlands, West Sumatera
    Pesticides are one of the main production factors needed in shallots cultivation. The appropriate use of pesticides can increase productivity, but inappropriate use of pesticides can harm farmers, contaminate crops and polluting the surrounding environment. This study aimed to describe the use of pesticides on shallot cultivation in Solok Regency, West Sumatra. Data was collected by interviewing 95 respondents of shallot farmers. Data parameters were obtained regarding pesticide technical application, pesticide application time, brand and amounts of pesticides used, and knowledge of the active ingredients used. Data was processed quantitatively descriptively, and it showed that most of the farmers mix two or more chemical pesticides for each application, and generally, farmers did not know the names and functions of the active ingredients in the pesticides, but they did not mix pesticides with the same active ingredients. In the dry season, most farmers spray every three days, while in the rainy season it increases to once every two days. This study is expected to be a reference for policymakers to be able to provide an extension program to use appropriate and correct pesticides according to the function and content of active ingredients to create a balanced agroecosystem. The government needs to conduct technical guidance on integrated pest and disease control, and disseminate environmentally friendly pest control technology.

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